Sharp colitis – ostrovospalitelny reaction of a mucous thick gut in response to influence of infectious, toxic, pharmacological or endogenous factors. It is shown by pains mainly in the left half of a stomach, a liquid watery chair with impurity of slime, blood and pus, high temperature and symptoms of dehydration. For diagnosis of sharp colitis carry out collecting complaints and the anamnesis, a palpation of a large intestine, a kolonoskopiya, a rektoromanoskopiya, the general blood test, the clinical and microbiological analysis a calla. For treatment of a sharp form of colitis antibacterial means, eubiotik, spazmolitik are appointed; the therapy directed to fight against dehydration is carried out.
Sharp colitis is pathology of a large intestine which is characterized by development of an inflammation of a mucous membrane with violation of its function. This nosological form most often meets aged from 15 up to 40 years. The second peak of incidence falls on 60-80 years. At the same time women and men have colitis approximately with an equal frequency. Scientists proved that representatives of white race are ill more often than Asians and the Afro-Americans. Today annually in Europe more than half a million cases of sharp colitis are registered. In a disease etiology the main role is played by infectious agents, reception of medicines and ischemia of a thick gut as a result of mezenterialny atherosclerosis. In the majority a case process comes to an end with recovery on condition of correctly carried out treatment. However the acute inflammation of a large intestine can sometimes pass into chronic. Such fields of medicine as proktologiya and gastroenterology are engaged in studying of features of a course of a disease.
Reasons of sharp colitis
Sharp colitis can be caused by various reasons, hit in an organism of infectious agents is basic of which. The disease is provoked by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Most often such infectious diseases as dysentery, salmonellosis and food toksikoinfektion are the reason of sharp colitis. Besides, in development of this pathological process a part is played by nonspecific activators, such as streptococci or staphylococcus. The infectious agent gets to an organism with dirty water or dirty products, for example, fruit or vegetables. At hit of pathogenic microorganisms on a mucous membrane of intestines there is a local inflammation which leads to development of colitis. Also infectious activators produce toxins which get into a system blood-groove and cause the general intoxication of an organism.
Besides, sharp colitis can be provoked by reception of antibacterial medicines and other medicines, for example, of laxatives. At elderly people colitis often arises against the background of atherosclerosis of mezenterialny vessels at which ischemia of a thick gut develops. From the rare reasons of development of a disease it is possible to note radiation defeat, food allergy and poisoning with chemicals. In certain cases precisely it is not possible to establish the cause of sharp colitis.
Sharp colitis is classified depending on an etiology and localization of inflammatory process. Respectively, colitis can be bacterial, parasitic, virus, ischemic, toxic, radiation, antibiotikoassotsiirovanny and autoimmune. Depending on localization of pathological process sharp colitis is divided into such forms as sigmoidit, transverzit, left-side, right-hand and total colitis.
Symptoms of sharp colitis
Irrespective of the reason which caused a disease, sharp colitis is followed by a meteorizm, spastic pains on the course of a large intestine, a tenezmama and the expressed diarrhea. Chair frequency at the same time can reach 20-25 times a day. In Calais impurity of slime, pus and even blood are often noted. At the initial stages of development of pathological process the chair has fetid character. In the subsequent it becomes watery due to violation of absorption of water in intestines.
Except local manifestations, sharp colitis is followed by the general symptomatology of various degree of expressiveness. At patients the hyperthermia is noted, temperature often exceeds 38 degrees. It is connected with hit of toxins in blood. Against the background of the expressed loss of liquid dryness of skin is observed, the gray raid in language appears. Owing to intoxication at patients with sharp colitis the general weakness and loss of appetite progresses. As a rule, the disease proceeds quickly and on condition of the correct treatment the normal state is restored within several days. At a severe form the course of disease can accept long character. Besides, in some cases development of complications, such as dehydrational shock, subhepatic abscess, peritonitis is possible, piyelit, sepsis.
Diagnosis of sharp colitis
At the initial stage for diagnosis of sharp colitis the proctologist carries out collecting complaints and the anamnesis. These clinical methods allow to suspect the reason which could cause a disease. Besides, the stomach palpation in a large intestine at which morbidity and rumbling mainly in the left half is defined that testifies in favor of colitis is carried out.
In diagnosis of sharp colitis tool and laboratory methods are used. From tool techniques endoscopy, in particular, a kolonoskopiya and a rektoromanoskopiya has the greatest informational content. When carrying out these researches hyperaemia and hypostasis of a mucous membrane of intestines comes to light. In case of the heavy course of a disease during endoscopy on walls of a large intestine pus, hemorrhages, erosion and even ulcers is visualized.
From laboratory methods the general blood test, a microbiological research a calla is conducted. At sharp colitis in the general blood test increase in quantity of leukocytes, stab forms and acceleration of SOE is noted. These are nonspecific signs of an inflammation which allow to estimate expressiveness of inflammatory process in a thick gut. In the analysis the calla (koprogramma) attracts attention a large amount of slime and elements of blood. The chair often has watery character. At microscopy the calla can be found abundance of leukocytes that testifies to bacterial character of an inflammation. For identification of the concrete activator conduct a microbiological research a calla. It allows not only to find the activator, but also to define its sensitivity to antibiotics.
Treatment of sharp colitis
At treatment of colitis it is required to observe rest and hunger several days. Only warm drink, for example, tea or lemon juice is allowed. In several days the diet extends by addition in a diet of porridge, low-fat meat and broths. In the next two weeks the patient recommend to abstain from sharp, fat or fried write, and also from vegetables and alcohol which irritate intestines. This diet corresponds to a table No. 4. If the disease was caused by the use of the food infected with pathogenic microflora or toxins carry out washing of a stomach and a thick gut by means of warm soda solution in parallel with purpose of laxative medicines.
At sharp colitis which is followed by severe pristupoobrazny pain in intestines spazmolitik are hypodermically entered: , papaverine or atropine. Purpose of narcotic analgetics is not recommended. In addition, for treatment of sharp colitis sulfanylamide medicines, and absorbent carbon are used. From the first days empirical antibiotic treatment which after obtaining results of a bacteriological research the calla is corrected taking into account sensitivity of the activator is appointed. In parallel with antibiotics to patients appoint eubiotik and a probiotics for normalization of intestinal microflora.
In case of the heavy course of a disease these medical actions supplement with the therapy directed to fight against dehydration and a collapse. For this purpose sick sharp colitis enter or sodium benzoate. At development of heart failure against the background of dehydration warm glycosides are shown. Besides, infusional therapy by physiological solution or 5% glucose in volume to 2 liters a day is in parallel carried out. If at the patient with sharp colitis persistent intensive vomiting is noted, then to it enter or .
Forecast and prevention of sharp colitis
For prevention of colitis it is necessary to follow strictly rules of personal hygiene which provide careful washing of hands before the use of food. It is always necessary to wash the fruit and vegetables taken in food. Prevention provides heat treatment of meat and fish, and also water boiling. Besides, the preventive actions directed to fight against viral infections which can cause sharp colitis are recommended.
The forecast at sharp colitis, as a rule, favorable. At purpose of timely correct treatment symptoms of a disease are usually stopped within several days. At a severe form of sharp colitis and lack of adequate therapy perhaps more long current with development of complications.