Sharp enterokolit – the pathology which is characterized the inflammatory damage of both a thin, and large intestine caused by the infectious and noninfectious reasons. Due to the big area of pathological process the clinical picture can be very variable and include a pain syndrome, the dispepsichesky phenomena (nausea, repeated vomiting, frustration of a chair, a meteorizm), symptoms of intoxication. Diagnostics is based on results of a koprogramma, bacteriological crops a calla, kolonoskopiya, rektoromanoskopiya, an intestines X-ray analysis. Treatment is performed in the conditions of a hospital and assumes carrying out desintoxication, introduction of spazmolitik and antibiotics, observance of a diet.
Sharp enterokolit – one of the most widespread diseases of a digestive tract equally striking both children, and adults. Pathological process at a sharp enterokolit usually superficial (more deeply the mucous membrane does not get), but very extensive – affects not only all intestines, but most often and the stomach (gastroenterokolit). The trigger of this disease usually is injury of a mucous membrane of intestines with development of the rough inflammatory process which is characterized by plentiful loss of liquid and electrolytes. The expressed dehydration, a toksemiya and dysbacteriosis lead to a bigger injury of a mucous membrane, closing a vicious circle. Clinical classification of an enterokolit is based on its etiologichesky factors.
Reasons of a sharp enterokolit
All sharp enterokolita subdivide on infectious and noninfectious. Sharp enterokolit the infectious nature it can be caused by parasites (helminths, amoebas, trichomonads), bacteria (shigellas, salmonellas, a cholera vibrio, staphylococcus). Development of a sharp infectious enterokolit is usually caused by violation of the sanitary and anti-epidemic mode: bad washing of hands, vegetables and fruit; use of low-quality products; use of water from unreliable sources. Considering the infectious nature of a disease, sharp enterokolit it can be infectious. If the patient with a sharp enterokolit does not see a doctor in time, or treatment will be carried out in an inadequate way, the disease can pass into a bakterionositelstvo or a chronic form. Besides specification of an etiology, allocate also specific and nonspecific infectious sharp enterokolit. Specific enterokolit is caused by the listed above activators, and nonspecific it is caused by dysbacteriosis (Clostridium) which developed against the background of antibiotic treatment (psevdomembranozny colitis).
Sharp noninfectious enterokolit is not an infectious disease and is caused by hypersensibility of intestines to the toxic and other irritating substances. Allocate several types of sharp enterokolit of a noninfectious etiology:
- toxic (at alcoholism, constant reception of some medicines, work with poisons and heavy metals);
- alimentary (against the background of reception of too fat, spicy and spicy food; abuses of the products rich with cellulose; cooking violations);
- mechanical (it is caused by chronic intestinal impassability, narrowing of intestines because of hems and tumors, locks);
- allergic (it is usually connected with other allergic pathology – bronchial asthma, pollinoza);
- ischemic (necrotic enterokolit newborns, at adults arises against the background of thrombosis of mezenterialny vessels and injuries of a stomach).
Symptoms of a sharp enterokolit
The clinical picture of a sharp enterokolit in many respects depends on its reasons. The most frequent symptoms of a disease are intensive skhvatkoobrazny belly-aches without accurate localization, diarrhea (a liquid chair with impurity of slime and undigested lumps of food, blood), nausea and repeated vomiting acid and bile, intoxication phenomena (fever, a headache, dizziness, muscle and joints pains).
The beginning of a sharp enterokolit usually sudden, is connected with belly-aches, diarrhea and vomiting. Because of intensive loss of liquid with vomiting and a diarrhea dehydration develops, internals suffer from a hypoxia. It leads to the expressed toksemiya, toxins get with blood current into intestines and injure a mucous membrane even more. Because of secondary toxic damage of a small and large intestine process is aggravated, the phenomena of intoxication accrue. Because of it sharp enterokolit is very dangerous disease – without timely treatment the heavy internal injury is noted.
At survey the patient with a sharp enterokolit has a look of suffering, features are pointed because of dehydration, skin and mucous dry. Language is laid over by a whitish raid. The stomach is blown up, hums at a palpation. The amount of urine can be reduced (oliguriya).
To differentiate sharp enterokolit the noninfectious nature follows with surgical diseases ("a sharp stomach"), infectious pathology. Sharp enterokolit can be complicated by a heavy eksikoz, perforation of intestines, generalized infectious process (sepsis).
Diagnostics of a sharp enterokolit
Usually the skilled gastroenterologist has no difficulties directed by the correct diagnosis: the combination of belly-aches, vomitings, diarrhea and the phenomena of intoxication is characteristic of a sharp enterokolit. For confirmation of the diagnosis a number of laboratory researches can be required: parasitological (scrape on , the analysis a calla on eggs of helminths), bacteriological (the analysis a calla on dysbacteriosis, a bacteriological research a calla, definition of sensitivity of the allocated microflora to antibiotics).
Repeated consultation of the gastroenterologist after establishment of the reason of a sharp enterokolit is necessary for purpose of tool researches: the survey X-ray analysis and ultrasonography of abdominal organs give the chance to reveal spazmirovanny sites of a small or thick intestine, the raised intestines meteorizm, defects of filling. The barium passage X-ray analysis on a small intestine is necessary for differential diagnostics with sharp surgical pathology.
Consultation of the endoscopist is required for carrying out a rektoromanoskopiya and a kolonoskopiya. At a sharp enterokolit in a large intestine ulcerations, congestions of slime and pus, bleeding sources in places of a necrosis of an intestinal wall are visualized.
Treatment of a sharp enterokolit
Patients with a sharp enterokolit demand hospitalization in office of gastroenterology or an infectious hospital. First of all the detoxication and completion of deficiency of liquid is made. For this purpose adjust intravenous infusion of water-salt solutions, carry out washings of a stomach and cleaning enemas. In the first days of a disease medical starvation is required, then rice broth, mucous porridges, the "second" broths is entered into a diet.
Drug treatment consists in purpose of spazmolitik, antibiotics and medicines for intestinal microflora restoration. If the reason of a sharp enterokolit is precisely known, therapy has to be etiotropny (antibacterial medicines are not appointed needlessly, anti-parasitic means etc. can be required).
As symptomatic treatment fermental medicines, means are applied to normalization of motility of intestines. For washing of a stomach and intestines recommend to use broths of herbs (a camomile, a calendula, etc.). At the expressed diarrhea broth of bark of an oak, a bird cherry and St. John's Wort in the form of tea will help. The sea-buckthorn oil accepted inside promotes healing of a mucous membrane of intestines.
The diet at a sharp enterokolit depends on the defeat level (mainly small or thick intestine), the nature of pathological processes in intestines, a type of dispepsichesky frustration. At damage of a small intestine it is necessary to include more protein in a diet, vitamins and minerals. At putrefactive processes in intestines of squirrels, on the contrary, exclude, as well as cellulose, fermented milk products. If fermentative processes prevail, it is necessary to refuse rye bread, milk, a large number of sweet, cabbage and bean.
Forecast and prevention of a sharp enterokolit
Prevention of a sharp enterokolit consists in observance of rules of personal hygiene and cooking, a balanced diet, timely treatment of intestinal infections, a responsible approach to reception of various medicines. Favorable, however, lack of the correct treatment or its premature termination can lead the forecast at a sharp enterokolit to development of complications, bakterionositelstvo, chronic forms of a disease.