Sharp sigmoidit – sharp inflammatory process in a zone of a mucous membrane of a sigmovidny gut. It is shown by pains of spastic character in the left part of a stomach with irradiation in a waist and a crotch, rumbling, a meteorizm, a plentiful chair, pathological impurity in Calais, nausea, vomiting, oznoba and temperature increase of a body to febrilny figures. Recovery or transition to a chronic form is possible. The diagnosis of a sharp sigmoidit is exposed taking into account the symptoms given to an irrigoskopiya, a rektoromanoskopiya, researches a calla on the hidden blood and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment – a diet, antibacterial medicines, infusional therapy, symptomatic means.
Sharp sigmoidit – the special case of segmentary sharp colitis which is followed by development of an inflammation in the field of a sigmovidny gut. In the isolated look meets rather seldom, it is usually combined with an inflammation of other departments of a large intestine, especially – a rectum (rektosigmoidit). Sharp sigmoidit it is diagnosed more often than other segmentary colitis that is caused by a number of anatomic features of a sigmovidny gut. Can come to light at patients of any age, men and women suffer equally often. Sharp sigmoidit is a polietiologichesky disease, develops against the background of sharp intestinal infections, dysbacteriosis, chronic diseases of intestines, radiation and other influences. Treatment is carried out by experts in the field of a proktologiya.
Reasons and classification of a sharp sigmoidit
Rather high prevalence of a sharp sigmoidit is connected with features of a structure and anatomic arrangement of this department of intestines. The Sigmovidny gut is disteel department of an obodochny gut. Density a calla in this site of intestines is higher, than in overlying departments of a thick gut, therefore, mucous body is more often injured by fecal masses that increases risk of development of a sharp sigmoidit. The gut has the S-shaped form, a large number of bends promotes stagnation of kalovy masses at violations of a vermicular movement and increases probability of a travmatization with the subsequent emergence of a sharp sigmoidit even more.
Besides, in this department intestines diverticulums in which can develop are most often formed divertikulit. The Sigmovidny gut is more often than other departments of a thick gut suffers from blood supply violations that is caused by features of a structure of the feeding vessels. Violations of food lead to injuries of a mucous membrane and decrease of the activity of smooth muscles, aggravating violations of a vermicular movement and a consequence of a travmatization of an intestinal wall.
Sharp sigmoidit often develops at sharp intestinal infections (especially – dysentery), helminthoses, inflammatory processes in a rectum and back pass (anal cracks, a paraproktita, a sharp and chronic proktit). The probability of emergence of a sharp sigmoidit increases at the thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of veins of a bryzheyka, hemorrhoids and other diseases which are followed by disorders of blood circulation in a small pelvis.
Sharp sigmoidit arises at the persons using insufficient amount of rough vegetable cellulose, a large number of greasy, spicy and spicy food and also at patients with chronic diseases of a gastrointestinal tract in the period of an aggravation more often. In some cases states after surgical interventions on abdominal organs, radiation therapy concerning oncological defeats of bodies of a small pelvis or a disease of a prostate gland at men and internal genitals at women become the factors promoting development of a sharp sigmoidit.
Depending on the nature of violations of motility allocate spastic and paralytic sharp sigmoidit, in dependence of features of damage of a mucous membrane – catarrhal, erosive, ulcer and hemorrhagic. In most cases at a sharp sigmoidit the catarrhal inflammation comes to light. In the absence of timely treatment, high aggression of infectious agents and severe defeats of an intestinal wall as a result of a travmatization, violations of blood supply and other factors the superficial inflammation can pass into erosive and ulcer forms of a sigmoidit.
Symptoms of a sharp sigmoidit
The disease develops suddenly. Deterioration in the general state is observed, there are a weakness, weakness, a headache, a hyperthermia and other symptoms of the general intoxication. The expressed pain syndrome which is quite often reminding a clinical picture of a sharp stomach is characteristic. Usually patients with a sharp sigmoidit complain of intensive pains of spastic character in the left half of a stomach and the left podvzdoshny area, but because of big mobility of a sigmovidny gut unusual localization of pains is in certain cases noted. Irradiation to the area of a waist, a crotch and the left lower extremity is possible.
At patients with a sharp sigmoidit rumbling, a meteorizm, tenezma and violations of a chair in the form of alternation of locks and ponos with an otkhozhdeniye of a large number a calla come to light. Kalovy masses becomes fetid, in them pathological impurity appear: slime, blood or pus. At a combination of a sharp proktit and a sharp sigmoidit from back pass bloody slime without impurity of fecal masses can be emitted. At some patients nausea and vomiting are observed.
Diagnostics of a sharp sigmoidit
The diagnosis is established by the proctologist taking into account clinical manifestations, results of a rectal research, a rektoromanoskopiya, X-ray analysis and laboratory analyses. When carrying out a manual rectal research at patients with a sharp sigmoidit puffiness of a wall of intestines comes to light. During a rektoromanoskopiya hypostasis, hyperaemia, multiple hemorrhages, erosion or ulcers are found (depending on a form of a sharp sigmoidit). Irrigoskopiya demonstrates violation of passability of a sigmovidny gut and reduction of a skladchatost of an intestinal wall, mucous owing to hypostasis.
Along with the listed researches a sick sharp sigmoidit appoint analyses a calla to eggs of worms and on for selection of protivogelmintny and antibacterial medicines. Because of high intensity of a pain syndrome differential diagnostics of a sharp sigmoidit usually should be carried out with urgent diseases and states, including – with an acute appendicitis at an atypical arrangement of a worm-shaped shoot and renal colic. At women this pathology is differentiated with a sharp adneksit.
Treatment of a sharp sigmoidit
At the initial stage of treatment to patients with a sharp sigmoidit appoint a bed rest and hot-water bottles with ice to area of a stomach. Exclude spicy, fat, salty, too cold and too hot food, and also the products stimulating an intestinal vermicular movement and promoting the increased gas generation from the menu. Recommend to eat fractionally warm semi-fluid or liquid food with the high content of butter. At severe forms of a sharp sigmoidit perform intravenous infusions of dezintoksikatsionny solutions, solutions of glucose and amino acids.
Appoint the antibacterial medicines or protivogelmintny means which are picked up taking into account results of analyses a calla on helminths and definitions of sensitivity of pathogenic flora. A part of treatment of a sharp sigmoidit is the symptomatic therapy directed to elimination of violations of a chair, spasms and the increased gas generation. Apply the enterosorbents, spazmolitik enveloping and the knitting medicines of the general action.
As means of local action at a sharp sigmoidit use rectal candles with the anti-inflammatory and regenerating action, enemas with a camomile, oil of a sea-buckthorn or a dogrose. At a timely initiation of treatment the forecast usually favorable, is in most cases observed an absolute recovery. At severe forms of a sharp sigmoidit, a late initiation of treatment and non-compliance with recommendations of the doctor transition of a disease to a chronic form is possible.