Allergy to alcohol
Allergy to alcohol – hypersensibility of an organism to the components which are contained in alcoholic beverages with development of allergic or pseudo-allergic reactions. Clinical manifestations are characterized by defeat of integuments (a small tortoiseshell, Quincke, dermatitis swelled), the top airways (rinokonjyunktivita, a bronchospasm), a digestive tract, system anafilaktoidny reactions. Diagnostics is based on studying of anamnestichesky data, the data of objective survey used in allergology of tests. Treatment – refusal of the use of the revealed problem product, observance of a special diet, use of antihistaminic medicines and symptomatic means.
Allergy to alcohol
Allergy to alcohol – the intolerance of the separate components which are a part of alcoholic beverages, caused by immunological or not immunological mechanisms. The clinical picture of intolerance of alcohol is similar at a true allergy and a pseudo-allergy, being shown generally by development of a small tortoiseshell and dermatitis, is more rare – symptoms of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, is even more rare – anafilaktoidny reactions. On statistical data in most cases of intolerance of alcohol pseudo-allergic reactions develop (in 80-95% of cases).
Reasons of an allergy to alcohol
True allergy to alcohol – rather unusual occurrence caused by development of allergic reactions of the immediate or slowed-down type at penetration of the vegetable proteinaceous inclusions (egg white, wheat, malt, hop, yeast, a wormwood, mint, ginger, hazelnut other) which often are available in alcoholic drinks in small amounts in a digestive tract. At the same time the IgE-mediated hypersensitivity meets more often, less often class G immunoglobulins take part in development of a true allergy to alcohol.
The main quantity of the revealed cases of an allergy to alcohol are not true, but pseudo-allergic reactions. At the same time in the mechanism of development of hypersensibility there is no immunological stage (reaction an anti-gene antibody), and pathological process begins with the second stage at once, that is with emission of mediators of an inflammation – in particular, a histamine corpulent cages and basophiles in response to some excipients which are a part of alcohol.
The main products which can lead to development of pseudo-allergic reactions to alcohol is the various dyes, fragrances and stabilizers added to alcoholic beverages for improvement of appearance and taste. Many true allergens at the same time can cause also a pseudo-allergy to alcohol.
There are products-gistaminoliberatory provoking and strengthening emission of a histamine (the ethyl alcohol, dyes and fragrances which are a part of alcoholic beverages and also eggs, wheat, chocolate, etc.). Besides the histamine in itself is always present at composition of beer (beer yeast) and the fermented wine (especially at red grades) that leads to summation of an adverse effect on an organism (a gistaminoliberator + a histamine).
Communication between development of an allergy to alcohol and presence at alcoholic drinks (first of all in wine) sulfur dioxide – the preservative used for reduction of bacterial processes (turning sour, fermentation), natural and artificial salycylates, and also sulfites – products of fermentation of the wines applied and as preservatives of bottled alcoholic drink is found.
The false allergy to alcohol can arise and at is long the people abusing alcoholic drinks owing to frequent presence at them of chronic diseases of intestines and easier penetration through the angry mucous membrane of a digestive tract into a blood-groove of true and false allergens.
Symptoms of an allergy to alcohol
Concrete clinical displays of an allergy to alcohol are diverse and depend as on the certain substance which caused intolerance, and its quantities and on reactivity of an organism, age, associated diseases and other factors.
Most often skin manifestations meet. At a true allergy to alcohol the symptoms as a small tortoiseshell and atopic dermatitis on face skin, the top part of a thorax which are followed by an itch of various degree of expressiveness are usually noted. One more skin manifestation at a true allergy to alcohol is angioneurotic Quincke swelled. At a pseudo-allergy damage of skin can have widespread character (a face, a trunk, the top and lower extremities) and is characterized by polymorphic skin rashes (urtikarny, papular, eritematozny, makulezny, hemorrhagic, bullous manifestations).
Respiratory displays of an allergy to alcohol include symptoms of allergic rhinitis (plentiful mucous and watery allocations from a nose, difficulty of nasal breath, a skin itch in a nose and in the nasal courses), bronkhospastichesky reactions (short wind, suffocation attacks).
Symptoms of damage of a digestive tract at a true or false allergy to alcohol can be shown in the form of an oral syndrome (an itch in oral cavities, a sleep or feeling of a raspiraniye of language, and also a soft palate, puffiness of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity). Nausea and vomiting after alcohol intake, belly-aches as intestinal colic, a loss of appetite, frustration of a chair, violation of the general health is quite often noted (a headache, the general weakness, dizziness, etc.).
The symptomatology of a false allergy to alcohol (pseudo-allergies) is most often caused by sharp emission of mediators of an inflammation (and first of all a histamine) cages and is shown in the form of the expressed vegeto-vascular reactions (sharp hyperaemia of skin, feeling of heat in all body, migrenozny headaches, feeling of shortage of air, gastric and intestinal dyspepsia) which can be combined with skin or respiratory manifestations.
System allergic reactions in the form of anaphylactic shock at the use of alcoholic beverages meet rather seldom, the anafilaktoidny reactions arising at a pseudo-allergy and proceeding more favorably a little more often can be noted.
Diagnosis of an allergy to alcohol
Detection of a true or false allergy to alcohol – rather complex challenge as in this case clinical manifestations are diverse, and the arising similar symptoms can be caused by absolutely various causal factors. To often reveal the concrete substance which caused allergic or pseudo-allergic reaction very difficult, considering the combined action of several components, frequent cross reactions between them, and also the accompanying toxic defeat of various bodies and fabrics at abuse of alcoholic drinks and sometimes the found congenital intolerance of alcohol.
Careful collecting the general and allergologichesky anamnesis, data on alcohol intake, existence of signs of food intolerance of separate products, nutritional supplements is necessary. For detection of a true allergy to alcohol the complex of laboratory and special allergologichesky researches, including skin allergoproba with potential food allergens which can be a part of alcoholic drinks is conducted (egg white, wheat, yeast, herbs, nuts, a citrus, etc.). Such tests have to be carried out by the allergist-immunologist in specialized medical institution. Identification allergen - specific immunoglobulins can be carried out (classes E and G) to above-mentioned food allergens.
Existence of negative results of allergologichesky researches testifies to the probable pseudo-allergic nature of intolerance of alcohol. In such cases the test with a histamine can sometimes be carried out: introduction of this substance to a 12-perstny gut and fixing of the developing reaction of an organism with the subsequent comparison with similar reactions to the use of wine, beer and other alcoholic drinks.
Differential diagnosis of an allergy to alcohol is carried out with other allergic diseases, including food allergy, digestive tract diseases, poisonings, chronic intoxications, vegeto-vascular dystonia, psychological and endocrine frustration, some intestinal infections.
Treatment of an allergy to alcohol
After identification of the concrete allergen or substance which caused pseudo-allergic reaction it is necessary to exclude the use of the alcoholic drinks containing a problem component and food which part it is.
Considering a negative role of a histamine in development of a false allergy to alcohol, it is necessary to use a diet with an exception or minimization of the products containing a histamine and in the increased quantities, and also liberator (wine and beer, firm cheeses, sausages, sausages, smoked products and marinated products), food dyes and preservatives. It is necessary to remember that even pure alcohol without special impurity and additives promotes absorption of other products containing a histamine that is anyway is the liberator increasing risk of development of pseudo-allergic reactions.
At the expressed clinical displays of an allergy to alcohol antihistamines (better – the second or third generation), are appointed, at system allergic and pseudo-allergic reactions – the glucocorticoids, means supporting work of the blood circulatory system and breath. Treatment of the accompanying somatic diseases (a gastroduodenit, an enterokolit, hepatitis and pancreatitis), vegeto-vascular dystonia and psychological frustration is carried out.
Prevention of an allergy to alcohol is based on the use of qualitative alcoholic drinks in small doses. The full refusal of alcoholic drinks, observance of an eliminative diet with an exception of the potential allergens, liberator and products containing a histamine in the increased quantities and also timely treatment of diseases of a digestive tract is in certain cases necessary.