Poisoning with alcohol substitutes
Poisoning with alcohol substitutes – intoxication caused by the use of the ethyl alcohol containing various impurity or other one-atomic and polyatomic alcohols. Usually arises at the patients having alcoholism. Poisoning with substitutes of alcohol can be followed by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, a hyperthermia, spasms, sight loss. Development of psychosis and sharp renal failure is possible. There is a danger of a lethal outcome. The diagnosis is exposed on the basis of the anamnesis, clinical manifestations and results of special tests. Treatment – an urgent detoxication, pharmacotherapy for restoration of functions of the struck bodies.
Poisoning with alcohol substitutes
Poisoning with alcohol substitutes – poisoning true (containing ethanol) and false (containing other alcohols) alcohol substitutes. As a rule, develops at patients with alcoholism. Besides, poisoning with substitutes of alcohol can arise at the teenagers who do not have an opportunity to buy qualitative alcohol or not paying enough attention to quality of alcohol owing to own psychological immaturity. It is seldom diagnosed for the healthy people who are getting counterfeits in doubtful outlets or received alcohol as a gift.
Poisoning with substitutes of alcohol occupies one of the leading positions on prevalence among other poisonings. Poses a serious threat for life of patients. Some researchers claim that more than 90% of patients with poisonings with substitutes of alcohol perish even before hospitalization. Serious violations of health can become an outcome of poisoning. Treatment of poisonings with substitutes of alcohol is performed by experts in the field of toxicology and narcology.
Classification of substitutes of alcohol
Distinguish two groups of substitutes: true and false. True substitutes contain ethanol and various impurity. At the use of similar drinks poisoning arises because of toxic effect of impurity. False substitutes contain not ethanol, but other alcohols causing state of intoxication. Poisoning develops as a result of action of the poisonous metabolites which are formed when splitting alcohols.
Poisonings with substitutes of alcohol are usually diagnosed for the alcoholics ready to use any alcohol-containing liquids without their quality and health hazard. Reception of denatured alcohol, polish, spirit wood stain for a tree, medical supplies on a spirit basis, alcohol-containing cosmetics, moonshine are the most common causes of poisonings with true substitutes. Poisoning with the alcohol substitutes which are not containing ethanol develops after methanol reception, and also brake fluid and anti-icers on the basis of ethylene glycol.
Symptoms of poisoning with alcohol substitutes on the basis of ethanol
The symptoms arising after the use of true substitutes depend on the impurity which are a part of alcohol-containing liquid. After reception of hydrolytic alcohol the same manifestations, as after the use of too high dose of usual alcohol: nausea, vomiting, a headache, dizziness, dryness in a mouth. Hydrolytic alcohol is more toxic, than ethyl therefore symptoms of poisoning with substitutes of alcohol are observed after reception of smaller amount of alcohol.
At patients poisoning with alcohol substitutes quite often happens to heavy alcoholism at reception of alcohol-containing cardiacs. The warm glycosides provoking bradycardia are a part of similar means. At the systematic use or reception of a high dose the acute heart failure can develop. Often add benzocaine which blocks ability of blood to deliver oxygen to bodies and fabrics to external alcohol-containing means. Poisoning with substitutes of alcohol is shown by symptoms of oxygen starvation. Mucous become bluish, blood gets a brown shade.
The composition of cosmetics, along with ethanol, includes butyl and methyl alcohols. After reception of such means there are symptoms of usual sharp alcoholic poisoning in combination with signs of damage of a GIT. The inflammation mucous a stomach is possible (gastritis) and development of hepatitis. After the use of spirit wood stain, as well as after reception of external alcohol-containing medicines, poisoning with substitutes of alcohol is shown by cyanosis of skin and mucous, however, this symptom is caused not by oxygen starvation, but effect of the dyes which are a part of wood stain. Blue coloring remains for a long time (sometimes – several months). At reception of moonshine typical alcoholic intoxication is observed, but moonshine has more expressed destroying effect on a liver because of the high content of fusel oils.
Symptoms of poisoning with alcohol substitutes on the basis of other alcohols
Taste and smell of methyl alcohol – same, as well as at ethyl. The lethal outcome can come after the use of only 100 ml. Individual sensitivity varies therefore after the use of an identical dose at one patient more serious poisoning by alcohol substitutes, than at another can be observed. Weight of poisoning also depends on whether the patient at the same time accepted the ethanol which is methanol antidote – some alcoholics dissolve methyl alcohol ethyl to avoid poisoning.
However such attempts to save are accompanied by direct risk for life. Methanol is not poisonous, but at its splitting in an organism strong poisons formaldehyde and formic acid are formed. At the use of a high dose symptoms of poisoning with substitutes of alcohol appear almost immediately, death comes in several hours. At reception of a small dose the hidden period during which the patient feels well is observed.
The easy form of poisoning with substitutes of alcohol is shown by the nausea, numerous vomiting, a headache, dizziness, pains in an epigastriya which are unsharply expressed by disorders of sight – flashing of front sights, violation of clearness of perception ("it is visible, how through fog"). Symptoms remain within several days, and then gradually disappear. At poisoning with substitutes of alcohol of average weight of manifestation similar, but all symptoms are expressed more brightly. 1-2 days of the patient later loses sight. In the subsequent sight is partially restored, however then again worsens. Such poisonings usually do not pose a threat for life, but can cause violations of sight with an exit to disability.
At a severe form there are pronounced typical symptoms of poisoning with alcohol substitutes, drowsiness and an oglushennost. In several hours there are an increasing thirst, leg pains, dryness and cyanosis mucous, violations of a rhythm, tachycardia and increase HELL. In the subsequent tachycardia is replaced by bradycardia, arterial pressure falls. Confusion of consciousness is observed, spasms and psychomotor excitement are possible. At especially serious poisoning alcohol substitutes the time span between emergence of the first symptoms and emergence of the expressed violations of activity makes only 2-3 hours. The coma and death as a result of respiratory standstill and violations of work of heart becomes a result.
One more quite often found poisoning arises at the use of the brake fluid containing ethylene glycol. A lethal dose, as well as at poisoning with methanol – only 100 ml. Formation of poisonous intermediate products of disintegration of ethylene glycol becomes the reason of poisoning, in particular – oxalic acid which provokes acidosis and has the destroying effect on kidneys as a result of formation of crystals of oxalate of sodium.
In the beginning poisoning with substitutes of alcohol reminds strong alcoholic intoxication. Several hours later vomiting, diarrhea, belly-ache, a headache, strong thirst, tachycardia, short wind and temperature increase develop. Skin and mucous dry, is noted reddening of skin and cyanosis of mucous membranes. Perhaps psychomotor excitement. At a serious poisoning substitutes of alcohol observe spasms, the progressing disorders of consciousness and an acute heart failure. In 2-3 days the renal failure develops, there are dysfunction of a liver. The lethal outcome comes owing to progressing of a renal failure.
Treatment at poisoning with alcohol substitutes
Treatment is begun with urgent washing of a stomach and introduction of sulfate of sodium via the probe. In case of poisoning with methanol the patient is given ethanol (antidote) orally or enter 2-5% alcohol solution intravenously kapelno. At poisoning with the substances containing ethylene glycol for elimination of acidosis use the sodium bicarbonate solution entered inside or intravenously. Tactics of further treatment at poisoning with true substitutes is defined by the revealed violations from various bodies and systems. To all patients carry out dezintoksikatsionny therapy, appoint vitamins, nootropa and so forth.
At poisoning with the alcohol substitutes containing methanol apply Prednisolonum, atropine, ATP and lyumbalny punctures to correction of violations of sight. At poisoning with ethylene glycol with a priority there is a fight against damage of kidneys. To patients appoint diuretics, plentiful drink and sulfate of magnesium. Carry out correction of water-salt balance. In hard cases carry out a hemodialysis or peritonealny dialysis. The forecast at poisonings with substitutes of alcohol is defined by a look and amount of the accepted liquid. After the use of true substitutes death comes seldom, the remote consequences as a result of damage of internals are possible. As a result of reception of the substances containing methanol and ethylene glycol the lethal outcome is often observed, many survived patients become disabled people.