Hungover syndrome – the pathological state arising after a while after alcohol intake. It is shown by weakness, weakness, dryness in a mouth, a headache, hypersensibility to acoustical and visual irritants, trembling of extremities, feeling of "an internal shiver" in a body, nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, decrease in mood, a dysphoria, apathy or sense of guilt. The diagnosis "a hungover syndrome" is established on the basis of the anamnesis, complaints of the patient and data of survey. Treatment – a detoxication, correction of exchange violations, completion of volume of liquid, symptomatic therapy.
Hungover syndrome – the state developing after a while after heavy or moderate alcoholic intoxication. Usually develops the next morning after reception of alcoholic drinks, appears less often (if the patient took alcohol since morning) by the evening. Unlike an abstinence syndrome, the hungover syndrome is diagnosed not only for alcoholics, but also for healthy people. Is a short-term state, all symptoms disappear within several hours or next day.
Expressiveness of a hungover syndrome depends on the accepted dose, a type of alcoholic drinks, specific features of an organism and some other factors. The hungover syndrome creates the raised load of all bodies and systems, can provoke and mask (because of similar symptomatology) a number of the sharp states posing hazard to life and health of the patient. Diagnostics and treatment of a hungover syndrome are performed by experts in the field of narcology.
Reasons of a hungover syndrome
The reasons of a hangover are definitely not found out, however is established that this syndrome develops under the influence of a number of factors. At hit in an organism ethanol stimulates a diuresis. The strengthened mocheotdeleniye in alcohol intoxication involves the subsequent dehydration. In an organism alcohol dehydrogenase splits ethanol in ethyl aldehyde, then the atsetaldegiddegidrogenaza turns ethyl aldehyde into acetic acid. The second stage of splitting of ethanol passes more slowly than the first, it becomes the main reason for development of a hungover syndrome.
Toxic ethyl aldehyde collects in an organism. Other exchange processes suffer because of active splitting of alcohol, as a result the liver cannot compensate decrease in level of glucose – a power source for all bodies and fabrics. The brain especially sensitive to shortage of glucose reacts to a hypoglycemia decrease in abilities to concentration, absent-mindedness of attention and other violations.
One more factor provoking a hungover syndrome is deficiency of magnesium which is strenuously removed through kidneys in alcohol intoxication. Normal magnesium blocks calcic channels, interfering with penetration into cages of excessive amount of calcium. At a lack of magnesium calcium gets into cages and provokes their excitement which is shown in the form of a fever, arrhythmia, weakness of muscles, nervousness and irritability. Expressiveness of a hungover syndrome is substantially caused by heredity (genetically caused features of amount of alcohol dehydrogenase) and somewhat – age (with age the level of alcohol dehydrogenase decreases).
Besides, expressiveness of a hungover syndrome depends on a type of alcoholic drinks. The hangover amplifies at the high content of fusel oils, dyes, sweeteners and other impurity. Researchers established that dark hard liquors (for example, bourbon), tequila and whisky which contain a large amount of the accompanying substances impacting to alcohol characteristic relish and aroma cause heavier hungover syndrome, than vodka or pure alcohol, and sweet cocktails – heavier hangover, than similar amount of the ethanol dissolved in water without sugar addition.
The hungover syndrome at the beer use, first of all, is caused by the strengthened mocheotdeleniye and the subsequent dehydration, and also intensive impact on vessels because of reception of a large amount of liquid. The expressed hungover syndrome arises after the use of moonshine, home brew and the low-quality forged alcoholic drinks which can contain fusel oils, technical alcohol and other impurity. At smokers the hungover syndrome is aggravated with poisoning with nicotine (in state of intoxication people smoke much more often).
Manifestations of a hungover syndrome
Typical manifestations of a hungover syndrome are weakness, slackness, weakness, apathy, decrease in mood, irritability and some depression. Some patients have a peculiar sense of guilt – so-called "adrenalinic melancholy", vague feeling that the day before made something shameful, indecent and unseemly. Sense of guilt at a hungover syndrome does not disappear even in the absence of memory blackouts, ability preservation to consistently recall all events of last evening and awareness of adequacy of own behavior.
Continuous manifestations of a hungover syndrome are absent-mindedness, decrease in intellectual and physical working capacity. It is difficult for the patient suffering from a hungover syndrome to concentrate, he easily distracts and ceases to perceive the arriving information. Abilities to logical data processing are weakened too, the thinking is slowed down. In attempt to make physical effort at the patient with a hungover syndrome there is a feeling of faintness, dizziness, heartbeat and other unpleasant symptoms. Difficulties when performing any active actions in a condition of a hungover syndrome are combined with hypersensibility to any irritants – bright light and loud sounds that aggravates psychological and emotional frustration even more.
Vegetative and somatic violations at a hungover syndrome remain even at rest. Patients are disturbed by a headache, thirst, dryness in a mouth, a tremor of extremities, feeling of "an internal shiver" in all body, nausea and loss of appetite. Vomiting appears in hard cases. Increase of pulse, increase or (more rare) decrease HELL is observed. Some patients have an arrhythmia. At a hungover syndrome all bodies work in the mode of the raised loading therefore the probability of an exacerbation of chronic diseases and development of sharp states increases, sometimes – posing a threat for life.
At patients with a hungover syndrome sharp pancreatitis, hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, a bronchospasm, renal colic and other diseases and pathological states develops more often. The stroke and a myocardial infarction is possible. The situation is aggravated because of similarity of the first signs of medical emergencies and manifestations of a hungover syndrome. Patients and their relatives treat a speech illegibility at a stroke, breast pain at a myocardial infarction and other symptoms as usual reaction of an organism to alcohol intake and call the ambulance later, than usually.
Diagnostics of a hungover syndrome
The diagnosis is exposed on the basis of the anamnesis (the use of alcoholic drinks the day before), complaints of the patient and results of objective survey. The major tasks facing the narcologist at survey and inspection of the patient with suspicion on a hungover syndrome are performing differential diagnostics between a usual hangover and an abstinence syndrome, and also an exception of sharp states which can mask symptoms of a hungover syndrome.
At a hangover all pathological manifestations arise after reception of alcohol next morning and disappear during the day. Symptoms of an abstinence syndrome remain 1-2 days in the beginning, then – 3-4 days. At heavy alcoholism duration of abstinency makes 6-10 days. At a hungover syndrome there is no expressed dysphoria, there are no psychopathological manifestations, neurologic frustration and the general signs of chronic abuse of alcohol: dryness and the reduced turgor of skin, violation of a condition of hair, puffiness of the person, characteristic changes of a figure etc.
At suspicion on development of the sharp pathology masked by a hungover syndrome consultations of the corresponding experts are necessary: gastroenterologist, cardiologist, neurologist, pulmonologist, nephrologist. If necessary the patient with a hungover syndrome appoint the general blood test, biochemical blood test, the analysis of urine, ultrasonography of internals, the fibrogastroscopy, the ECG, EEG, MRT of a brain and other researches. The list of researches in each case is defined by the doctors of the general profile who were carrying out consultation.
Treatment of a hungover syndrome
In most cases specialized medical care is not required, perhaps independent treatment of a hungover syndrome with use of the folk remedies and medicines which are available in each home first-aid kit. Priorities are elimination of dehydration, correction of acidosis and restoration of the water-salt exchange broken because of allocation of a large amount of salts with urine. At a hungover syndrome it is necessary to drink more water – it not only helps to correct dehydration and to fill a lack of salts, but also stimulates work of kidneys, accelerating removal of products of disintegration of alcohol. Plentiful drink is especially important at the vomiting aggravating dehydration.
The good effect at a hungover syndrome gives the use of the fermented products (a brine, sauerkraut, soaked apples), fermented milk products (koumiss, ayran, kefir), and also orange, lemon and other juice containing a large amount of lemon acid. It is possible to drink not pasteurized kvass containing lactic acid (stimulates Krebs's cycle). At feeling of weakness and weakness the dream before disappearance of symptoms of a hungover syndrome is recommended. With a normal arterial pressure and absence of tachycardia walks in the fresh air and the easy physical activities promoting metabolism acceleration are useful.
At the headache which is often arising at a hungover syndrome sedatives are shown. For elimination of intoxication use absorbent carbon. It is necessary to consider that coal is a universal sorbent – it absorbs any substances which appeared in a cavity of a stomach and intestines therefore sorbents need to be accepted for an hour to food and reception of other medicines. At a heavy hungover syndrome conduct washing of a stomach, however independently (causing vomiting) this procedure is not recommended to be carried out as repeated rough vomiting can become the reason of damage of vessels of the lower part of a gullet. An exception – cases of heavy fresh intoxication.
At a heavy hungover syndrome the detoxication in house conditions or in the conditions of specialized narcological office is necessary. The procedure includes intravenous drop administration of salt solutions and dezintoksikatsionny medicines in combination with pathogenetic and symptomatic means: vitamins, nootropa, medicines for normalization of pressure and warm activity etc. In the absence of complications the forecast at a hungover syndrome favorable, all symptoms disappear within a day.