Allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis is the inflammatory disease of skin arising in the place of its direct contact with allergen. The inflammation develops on the slowed-down type of allergic reaction, that is at regular and rather long contact with substance-allergen. During this contact there is a sensitization of an organism and hypersensibility to allergen develops. Allergic contact dermatitis is characterized by puffiness and reddening of fabrics, kontaktrovavshy with allergen, an itch, emergence of papules and bubbles. In treatment the main role belongs to elimination of contact with the substance or a subject which caused developing of dermatitis. For elimination of puffiness and an itch use of kortikosteroidny ointments, modern antihistaminic medicines is possible.
Allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis is the inflammatory disease of skin arising in the place of its direct contact with allergen. The inflammation develops on the slowed-down type of allergic reaction, that is at regular and rather long contact with substance-allergen. During this contact there is a sensitization of an organism and hypersensibility to allergen develops.
Causes of allergic contact dermatitis
The modern industry produces huge number of chemicals which can become the reason of allergic contact dermatitis. These are paints and varnishes, laundry detergents and other means of household chemicals, some components of perfumery production and cosmetics, synthetic materials of which clothes and paints by which it is painted are made. Chemicals to which the person constantly contacts at work lead to development of professional dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can be caused by some drugs. Plants, such as a cow-parsnip, a primrose, yasenets white, and others, can also become the reason of allergic contact dermatitis which belongs to phytodermatitis.
Allergen influences skin, but the allergic changes resulting from it affect all organism. Time for which the sensitization of an organism develops and arises allergic reaction, depends on that how strong allergen influenced skin. The large role in this process is played also by a condition of the organism: predisposition to allergic reactions, violations of immunity at chronic inflammatory processes, thinning of a horn layer of skin, etc. For example, at the increased perspiration the allergic contact dermatitis provoked by clothes from the painted fabrics is observed more often.
Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis
Changes of skin at sharp allergic contact dermatitis are always localized in the place of contact of skin with allergen and go beyond this contact a little. Existence of a clear boundary of the center of defeat is characteristic. In the beginning reddening of skin and puffiness of fabrics develops. Then there are papules which quickly enough are filled with liquid and passing into a stage of bubbles. After opening of the last on skin erosion are formed. When healing they become covered by crusts. These changes on skin are followed by a severe itch. Process comes to an end with a peeling.
At the continuing influence of allergen against the background of already arisen allergic reaction, the chronic form of allergic contact dermatitis develops. Indistinct borders of the centers of defeat on skin and distribution of inflammatory changes on the sites of skin which are not contacting to allergen are characteristic of it. At a strong sensitization of an organism process generalization is observed. Skin displays of chronic allergic contact dermatitis are characterized by formation of papules, dryness and a peeling, a skin thickening with strengthening of the skin drawing (likhenization). The constant itch leads to emergence of secondary injuries of skin because of its constant combing (ekskoriation).
Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis is rather easily diagnosed on symptoms and identification of connection with impact on skin of substance, characteristic of it, which is potential allergen. Precisely skin tests help to define the cause of dermatitis. They will be out by means of special test strips, with the allergens applied on them. Strips paste on previously cleared skin. Allergic reaction is determined by emergence of reddening and puffiness in the place of gluing of a strip.
For detection of associated diseases and differential diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis conduct additional examinations: clinical and biochemical blood test and urine, blood test on sugar, kcal on dysbacteriosis. If necessary carry out inspection of digestive tract and a research of function of a thyroid gland.
Treatment of allergic contact dermatitis
The main condition of successful treatment of allergic contact dermatitis is full elimination of the allergen which caused it. So at an allergy to means of household chemicals it is necessary to use protective gloves. At an allergy to synthetic materials — to wear only cotton linen, and upon purchase of clothes carefully to study composition of fabric. At an allergy to metal metal parts of clothes (a lightning, buttons, hooks and buttons) should not adjoin to skin, scissors and other tools have to have plastic or wooden handles, it is necessary to exclude carrying costume jewelry from metal also.
In treatment of sharp allergic contact dermatitis use of kortikosteroidny ointments is effective. At formation of big bubbles make their piercing. For removal of an itch and puffiness appoint modern antihistaminic medicines: , , , etc. In hard cases accept inside kortikosteroidny medicines.
Forecast of allergic contact dermatitis
At an exception of contact of the patient with allergen there is an absolute recovery. However repeated contacts with allergen not always manage to be avoided, especially, if it is about professional activity. In such cases allergic contact dermatitis continues to develop, the sensitization of an organism accrues, there is a generalization of process and clinical manifestations take all organism.