Allergic diseases

Allergic diseases - group of the diseases caused by hypersensitivity of the individual to certain alien substances - to allergens and proceeding with development of reaction of immune system by IgE-oposredovanna. Necessary conditions for developing of an allergy are high specificity (reaction strictly to certain anti-genes), a sensitization (hypersensibility to this allergen) and repeated impact of allergen on an organism.

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Allergic diseases

Allergic diseases - group of the diseases caused by hypersensitivity of the individual to certain alien substances - to allergens and proceeding with development of reaction of immune system by IgE-oposredovanna. Necessary conditions for developing of an allergy are high specificity (reaction strictly to certain anti-genes), a sensitization (hypersensibility to this allergen) and repeated impact of allergen on an organism.

The Austrian pediatrician K. von Pirke in 1906 suggested to use the term "allergy" meaning in translation from Greek "the answer, reaction on others". For last century allergic diseases assumed epidemic scale, and prevalence of an allergy among adults and children continues to increase steadily. According to researches, various allergic diseases in the western countries 35% of inhabitants, in Russia - have from 17,5% to 30% of the population. These circumstances caused allocation of special medical discipline – the allergology which is engaged in studying of the diseases connected with hypersensitivity reaction. Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, a small tortoiseshell, atopic dermatitis belong to number of the most widespread allergic diseases.

Ethological classification of allergic diseases is based on release prichinno of significant allergen; within it differentiate a food, household, insect, medicinal, infectious allergy. On a way of penetration into an organism distinguish aero allergens, contact, oral, injection allergens. Taking into account conditions in which allergic reaction developed allocate a household, professional, seasonal allergy. Depending on primary defeat of this or that system of bodies distinguish the following groups of allergic diseases: allergodermatoza (atopic dermatitis, eczema, a small tortoiseshell, etc.), intestinal allergoza (allergic enterokolit), respiratory (allergic rhinitis, allergic trakheobronkhit, bronchial asthma), acute allergic reactions (Quincke, anaphylactic shock swelled).

The symptomatology of various allergic diseases is caused by the general pathogenetic mechanisms: emission in fabrics or in blood of mediators of corpulent cages and basophiles which cause characteristic vascular and gladkomyshechny reactions: hypostasis, hyperaemia, itch, hypotonia, breath difficulty. At the same time the concrete form of an allergy depends on in what body or fabric allergen will come into contact with the immunoglobulin E fixed on a surface of cages. If it occurs in a respiratory path, the clinic of allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma, in an eye conjunctiva - allergic conjunctivitis, in blankets terms – small tortoiseshells, in hypodermic cellulose – Quincke's hypostasis etc. can develop. As allergic diseases have extremely various manifestations, in the work specialists allergists closely contact to dermatologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, nutritionists and doctors of other specialties.

Specific diagnosis of allergic diseases consists in collecting the allergologichesky anamnesis, carrying out an allergotestirovaniye ( and provocative tests), definition of the general and allergenspetsifichesky IgE, if necessary – performance of functional researches (spirometry with tests, pikfloumetriya). After identification of causal allergen it is necessary to take immediate measures for its elimination, i.e. to completely exclude contact with the substance provoking an allergic disease. For this purpose can be required to change eating habits, to refuse use of a certain cosmetics, to get rid of upholstered furniture and carpets in the house, to stop reception of some medicines, to replace the sphere of professional activity etc. The modern principles of treatment of allergic diseases provide carrying out a specific hyposensitization (ASIT) by introduction to an organism of allergens in gradually increasing doses. After a full course of ASIT permanent remission manages to be reached in 70-80% of cases. For nonspecific therapy of allergic diseases various groups of medicines are used: antihistaminic, kromona, corticosteroids, bronchial spasmolytics, etc. From non-drug methods the acupuncture, a climatotherapy, homeopathy, phytotherapy is applied.

Information on the most widespread violations of immunological reactivity is provided in the section "Allergic Diseases" of the present medical reference book. These materials competently tell about modern views on the reasons and features of a course of allergic diseases, and also approaches to their diagnostics and treatment.

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