Alopetion at children – a considerable poredeniye or a full hair loss on the head of the child and violation of further process of growth of new hair. Alopetion at children is characterized by emergence on a hairy part of the head of the centers of a hair loss of various size, a subtlety and fragility of hair on the periphery of the center of baldness. Diagnostics of an alopetion demands carrying out consultation of the dermatologist-trichologist with microscopy of hair from children (trikhogrammy), computer diagnostics; according to indications – inspections of endocrine, nervous, digestive systems. Treatment of an alopetion at children is carried out taking into account the established causes of illness and usually includes local and system therapy, beauty equipment procedures.
Alopetion at children
Alopetion at children - the chronic dermatosis which is followed by an intensive pathological poredeniye and a hair loss in the field of a hairy part of the head, eyebrows and eyelashes. The alopetion occurs at children less than at adults, however represents an urgent problem of modern pediatrics and children's dermatology. As the alopetion reasons at children are in the plane of consideration of various disciplines (children's gastroenterology, children's endocrinology, children's neurology), diagnostics and treatment of a disease demands integration of efforts of different experts.
The alopetion reasons at children
In general impact on hair follicles of various adverse factors leading to the progressing hair loss is the reason of an alopetion at children. Alopetion at the child can have hereditary character: there are messages on family forms of baldness when parents of children with an alopetion from early age suffer from loss of hair.
At children violation of balance of minerals can be the cornerstone of an alopetion. In this case the problem, as a rule, develops at the children having gastrointestinal diseases (gastroduodenit, a gastroezofagealny reflux disease, a malabsorption syndrome, locks, helminthoses, dysbacteriosis, etc.). In development of an alopetion in children an essential role is played by a lack of such elements as zinc, copper, selenium, molybdenum, and also vitamins - cyanocobalamine, folic acid, etc. is lame.
According to clinical trials, the close interrelation between baldness and immunological violations is traced: quite often the alopetion occurs at children with vitiligo and atopic dermatitis. At children can lead neuroendocrine violations to emergence of an alopetion: dysfunction of a thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), nervous and mental injuries.
Among other causes of an alopetion children have instructions on burns, injuries of a hair core (for example, at hard weaving of braids for girls, a trikhotillomaniye), diseases of blood (anemia), x-ray radiation, infectious diseases (flu, pneumonia, an ugly face, a piodermiya, chicken pox, etc.).
Classification of an alopetion at children
The congenital alopetion at children - quite unusual occurrence is also usually combined with some other anomalies: congenital epidermoliz, folded skin, endocrine violations. As the reason of a congenital alopetion at children serves the ektomezodermalny dysplasia at which a part of hair follicles just is absent therefore on certain sites of head skin hair do not grow.
At children of the first year of life perhaps so-called physiological baldness – a hair loss in a forehead and a nape owing to continuous friction. In this case growth of hair is resumed without special treatment over time.
In most cases at children the focal or atrofiruyushchy alopetion comes to light. The focal (gnezdny) alopetion is characterized by emergence on the head of hairless sites of rounded shape. At an atrofiruyushchy alopetion at children (Brock's psevdopelada) the separate small centers of baldness are more often located in frontal parietal areas; merging among themselves, they form the outlines reminding tongues of flame.
The Seboreyny alopetion at children usually demonstrates in the pubertatny period and develops against the background of the previous seborrhea.
Alopetion symptoms at children
The focal (gnezdny) alopetion develops at children is more senior than 3 years more often. In typical cases on the head of the child one or several centers of baldness appear. The sites deprived of hair have a clear boundary, the round or oval form, the sizes from a coin to a palm. The centers are inclined to peripheral increase and merge among themselves. Typical localization of zones of baldness – occipital or parietal area. Sites of a hair loss can also meet on eyebrows.
At a gnezdny alopetion at children skin color in the field of a hair loss is not changed; hyperaemia and a peeling are absent, however there is an expansion of mouths of hair follicles seen approximately. On the periphery of the centers of baldness hairs are broken off, have a reinforced root and a narrow core, reminding an exclamation mark in a form. These hairs easily drop out, promoting expansion of the area of defeat. Quite often at the child with a gnezdny alopetion vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, the increased fragility of nails, change of color and a form of nail plates comes to light.
At a favorable current of a focal alopetion at children the single centers become covered by hair over time – in the beginning colourless, then pigmented. Existence of the multiple centers with a tendency to increase in the area of baldness can be followed by their merge in polymorphic figures and transition to total baldness not only the heads, but also other parts of the body.
At an atrofiruyushchy alopetion at children the baldness centers in the form of tongues of flame are formed. Skin in a zone of affected areas atrofichny, smooth, brilliant, without peeling and signs of an inflammation; mouths of follicles are not noticeable. In the centers of baldness separate bunches of the remained hair can meet. Restoration of natural growth of hair at an atrofiruyushchy alopetion is impossible, however progressing of baldness can be stopped.
The Seboreyny alopetion at children begins with emergence of an oily hair at which roots scales and crusts are formed. The peeling is followed by an intensive itch and combing of head skin together with what the hair loss begins. Process of a poredeniye of indumentum is replaced by formation of a high temple which extends from a forehead to a nape. Over time on the top hair completely drop out; normal growth of hair remains in the form of a border on a nape and temples.
Diagnostics of an alopetion at children
If the pediatrician or parents of the child noticed alopetion signs, carrying out the advanced diagnostic search directed to clarification of causes of illness is necessary. Children with an alopetion need consultation of the children's dermatologist, trichologist, children's gastroenterologist, children's endocrinologist, children's neurologist.
Inspection of a GIT can include the analysis a calla on dysbacteriosis, definition a helikobakter by the IFA and PTsR, ultrasonography methods of an abdominal cavity, FGDS. The research of tireoidny hormones (TTG, T4, AT to a tireoglobulin), ultrasonography of a thyroid gland, determination of level of the ionized Ca and cortisol is made. For definition of the microelement status at children with an alopetion the spectral research of hair and blood on minerals is carried out. By means of IFA-diagnostics existence of antibodies to a hemolytic streptococcus, herpes, mushrooms, lyambliya, helminths comes to light.
Actually trikhologichesky diagnostics includes carrying out a trikhogramma, fototrikhogramma, computer diagnostics of head skin. With the subsequent histologic research resort to a biopsy of skin of a hairy part of the head only in clinically not clear cases for an exception of the cicatricial alopetion accompanying system red to a wolf cub or flat deprive.
The focal alopetion at children should be distinguished from gnezdny baldness at fungal diseases (a trichophytia, a microsporia). At doubts in the diagnosis and an ambiguity of the reasons of baldness the child has to be consulted by the mycologist. At common forms of an alopetion to children the rheoencephalography allowing to exclude possible violations of blood circulation in cerebral vessels is carried out.
Treatment of an alopetion at children
Children have to have a multilevel treatment of an alopetion and be under construction taking into account the reasons of loss of hair. Pathogenetic treatment of baldness is appointed and controlled by the profile expert.
In all cases of an alopetion at children purpose of the all-strengthening therapy is shown: immunomodulators, vitamins (And, C, E, B1, B6, B12), phytin, pantothenic acid, methionine in age dosages. System use of hormonal medicines is expedient only at a total alopetion at children.
Topichesky therapy of an alopetion at children includes Ural federal district of the centers of baldness after greasing them the photosensitizing medicines on the basis of extract of a parsnip, an amma big, a metoksalena, a darsonvalization of a hairy part of the head. Daily cooling of a hairy part of the head with chlorethyl, rubbing in of emulsions and tinctures, prednizolonovy ointment (is carried out at Brock's psevdopelada). At the cicatricial alopetion which developed owing to a burn, conservative treatment is inefficient. In the subsequent to such children hair transplant can be carried out.
In the course of treatment of an alopetion at children the help of the children's psychologist as baldness seriously injures mentality of the child can be required, reduces a self-assessment, forms isolation and difficulties in communication with peers.
The forecast of an alopetion at children
Part of children within a year has a spontaneous restoration of growth of hair without any treatment. Concerning the forecast the alopetion cases at children which are developing in the early childhood, followed by widespread baldness or total loss of hair, the accompanying damages of smooth skin and nails are adverse. In case the alopetion reasons at children are not established or a recurrence is not eliminated, possible.
Prevention of an alopetion demands carrying out medical examination of children for timely identification of deviations in health, treatment of chronic infections, the organization of good nutrition. Care of hair at children includes a systematic hairstyle of boys, avoiding of a zapletaniye of hard braids at girls. For prevention of loss of a limp hair at children with an alopetion it is recommended to wash the head not more often than 2 times a week.