Abuse of amphetamine
Abuse of amphetamines – dependence on derivatives of a fenilalkilamin (amphetamine and its analogs). Medicines of this group exert the stimulating impact on TsNS. At the use cheerfulness, raising of mood, increase in activity, decrease in fatigue, improvement of concentration of attention, reduction of need for a dream and food is observed. HELL, increase of pulse and breath is noted increase. At overdose there can be spasms and losses of consciousness. At the constant use violations from various bodies and systems develop. Amphetamine psychoses are possible.
Abuse of amphetamine
Abuse of amphetamine – rather widespread dependence. Patients of young age suffer mainly. Amphetamines enjoy popularity in club culture and quite often are considered by students as means for increase in working capacity during preparation for examinations. Distribution of psychoactive agent is promoted by rather low price and simplicity of acquisition – young people quite often illegally get derivatives of a fenilalkilamin on the Internet.
Cheerfulness and activity at the use of amphetamine are stimulated in the artificial way, at the expense of internal reserves. As a result at constant reception the patient is exhausted both physically, and mentally. Abuse of amphetamines can cause psychoses, decrease in body weight and the expressed weakness. Decrease in immunity, violations of work of a liver and kidneys is possible. The risk of development of a hemorrhagic stroke increases. Amphetamine is especially dangerous to the people having cardiovascular diseases, gipertireozy and glaucoma. Treatment of dependence on amphetamine is performed by experts in the field of narcology.
Amphetamine and development of amphetamine dependence
Amphetamine – TsNS stimulator. Effects of this means are caused by its impact on neurotransmitters, ability to stimulate emission of catecholamines and to interfere with their return capture. Amphetamine was for the first time synthesized at the end of the 19th century. For some time it was widely used as medicine for expansion of bronchial tubes. In 1927 the psychostimulating properties of amphetamine were open, and its began to apply to a loss of appetite, treatment of a nakrolepsiya and a giperkineziya. During World War II Americans began to give this medicine to military to increase vigilance, to reduce fatigue and the need for a dream. In post-war time epidemic of an amfetaminomaniya extended at first in Japan, then in America and Europe. In Russia abuse of amphetamines became an urgent problem in 80-90 years of the last century.
After a while after discovery of the psychostimulating properties of amphetamine it became clear that medicine causes dependence and increases probability of development of some somatic diseases. After that its application began to be limited, however completely not forbidden. In the USA this means still is a part of first-aid kits of staff of some special forces. Along with amphetamine drug addicts widely use methamphetamine. In Russia methamphetamine is entered in the list of narcotic substances, and its turn is forbidden.
Despite restriction of sale and use of amphetamine, it continues to be used illegally as a stimulator in the circumstances demanding high intellectual and physical performance. Medicine is used by students, businessmen, athletes, truck drivers etc. At the same time, in recent years in the USA, Europe and Russia some decrease in popularity of this psychoactive agent is noted. In 1985 there was a new form of methamphetamine – the substance with crystal structure intended for smoking (ice). In the beginning medicine was apprehended lightly, but then it became clear that its reception can cause serious consequences, and the lethality when smoking ice is higher, than at reception of a crack.
In the underground market amphetamine is realized in the form of tablets, capsules, powder, crystal substance for smoking, solutions for intake and intravenous administration. Purity of substance depends on conditions of synthesis and can strongly vary. Color can be white, yellowish, brownish, pink and even violet. The unpleasant smell testifies to a large amount of the organic solvents which are not removed in the course of medicine processing.
At abuse of amphetamines characteristic cyclic reception is observed. After the use there is expressed, but very short effect. In a few minutes (after easing of effect) enter a new dose, then more and more. In general the cycle of reception can look as follows: the use each hour within 2-3 days, then the exit period from the changed state within 6-10 hours, and then a long dream within a day and more. Also cycles with the use are described every 3-4 hour.
Time of the beginning of effect of amphetamine is defined by way of introduction of psychoactive agent to an organism. At intravenous administration amphetamine begins to act within several seconds (on a needle). When smoking the notable effect is swept up within 1-2 minutes, at inhalation through a nose – within 5-15 minutes. At the use inside change of a state arises after absorption of a sufficient dose of medicine (within 30 and more minutes). Substance quickly gets to blood, is distributed on all bodies and transported to a brain. Splitting of amphetamine happens in a liver. Metabolites are removed by kidneys and can be found in urine. Elimination half-life makes 8-12 hours, in some cases – about days.
After the amphetamine use the patient feels improvement of mood, feeling of cheerfulness and inflow of forces. The person can long not sleep and not eat, perform hard mental or physical work, without feeling fatigue. The combination of positive emotional effect to increase in the general activity and working capacity stimulates to the repeated use. After reception patients dance night without a break in clubs, prepare for examinations, tensely work etc.
Mental dependence develops in 2-3 weeks of the regular use. Productive activity without use of a stimulator becomes difficult. The question of emergence of physical dependence at the amphetamine use remains open so far. One experts consider that hunger, the depression, drowsiness and breakdown at cancellation of medicines are signs of physical dependence. Others believe that the listed symptoms develop owing to long overfatigue and exhaustion of an organism.
Symptoms of abuse of amphetamine
The stimulating effect of amphetamines includes raising of mood, feeling of cheerfulness, hyperactivity and working capacity. The negative impact on TsNS consists in a sleep disorder and appetite, the increased irritability and emotional instability. Increase in arterial pressure, expansion of pupils, reddening or pobledneny skin, increase of pulse and breath is observed. At reception of a high dose the face skin pricking, dizziness and gnashing of teeth is noted. At further increase in a dose trembling of extremities, heartbeat, breast pain, spasms in a stomach, temperature increase, nausea, vomiting, uneasiness and aggression appears. There can be a paranoid behavior and attacks of panic. Deliriozny states with the expressed excitement are sometimes observed. At serious overdose heart attack is possible.
The termination of the use leads to development of the abstinence syndrome which is followed by apathy, breakdown and constant drowsiness. Depressive frustration are possible. The disorientation and deterioration in perception is observed. In development of abstinency allocate three phases. In the first phase (proceeds from several hours to 4 days) the expressed need to accept a new dose of amphetamine prevails to get rid of unpleasant symptoms. In the second phase (from 1 to 10 weeks) pathological thirst for amphetamine weakens, but does not disappear. The dream is normalized, some alarm or depression remains. In the third phase (from 2,5 to 6 months) desire to accept amphetamine gradually completely dies away.
At the long use characteristic changes are noted. Patients with an amfetaminomaniya look thin, emaciated. Skin is pale, cheeks hollow. Patients often have because of decrease in immunity infectious diseases. Decrease in sight can be observed. Consciousness remains clear, however patients are disturbed by constant fatigue and breakdown at the high level of internal tension. There is a concern and sleep disorders. Many patients suffer from depressions and subdepressions.
Owing to the long use or single reception of a high dose amphetamine psychoses sometimes develop. Consciousness of the patient remains clear, at the same time there are an expressed excitement, alarm, tension, visual and acoustical hallucinations. The nonsense of the relation or prosecution is formed. Sometimes it seems to the patient as though on his body small insects creep (crazy ). The clinical picture of sharp psychosis at abuse of amphetamine reminds a sharp phase of schizophrenia.
Treatment and the forecast at dependence on amphetamine
At overdose of the patient urgently hospitalize in narcological office and fix to a bed that he did not do harm to himself or other people. For excitement elimination intravenously enter diazepam, is more rare – or a haloperidol. At substantial increase of temperature the body of the patient is cooled, using damp sheets and hot-water bottles with cold water. In case of need pour salt solutions, carry out the symptomatic therapy directed to normalization of arterial pressure, elimination of arrhythmia etc.
Planned treatment is also performed in stationary conditions. Psychoactive agent is cancelled in one stage. At the expressed excitement narcologists apply medicines from group of benzodiazepines, at emergence of psychotic symptomatology use antipsychotic means. In the subsequent carry out the long psychotherapy directed to elimination of a psychological inclination to drug, search of new life priorities, development of the correct mode by which the patient will not feel the need to use stimulators for increase in working capacity etc.
The forecast at dependence on amphetamine is rather adverse because of high probability of emergence of a recurrence even later long time after final cancellation of medicine. Now there are no officially approved medicines eliminating or reducing thirst for amphetamine, and the patient it is necessary to fight against dependence only against the background of psychotherapeutic support.
At continuation of the use of mental and intellectual decrease usually it is not observed, however psychoses (including long) and violations in work of internals are possible. It is proved that amphetamine can exert the destroying impact on serotoninergichesky and dofaminergichesky neurons that can be shown by decrease of the activity, loss of feeling of internal satisfaction from cognitive activity, mental inertness and difficulties when switching attention. Lethal outcomes at overdose are observed seldom. In the presence of cardiovascular diseases the risk of death owing to overdose increases.