Abuse of anabolic steroids
Abuse of anabolic steroids – regular reception of steroid hormones which are derivatives of natural hormone of testosterone. It is widespread among athletes, especially professional. Quite often arises at the people who are going in for bodybuilding (including at the amateur level). Anabolic steroids stimulate growth of muscle bulk, increase force of muscles. At the constant use negatively influence a liver and endocrine system. There are researches confirming development of psychological dependence on anabolic steroids.
Abuse of anabolic steroids
Abuse of anabolic steroids – a widespread problem among athletes. Anabolic steroids use practically in all sports, there are data that in the Olympic sports "pure" from anabolic steroids were only a figure skating and female field hockey. Since 1974 anabolic steroids are included in the list of sports dopes that allowed to reduce their use. Medicines of this group enjoy wide popularity among admirers of bodybuilding, quite often begin to use them nearly from the first visit of gym.
Many patients at the time of the first reception did not reach age of 16 years yet. The early age of the beginning of the use increases probability of development of various complications. First, the use of hormones before end of a growing can do serious harm to endocrine system and other bodies. Secondly, teenagers are impatient, they need "all and at once" that leads to reception of incredibly high doses. At the same time, anabolic steroids constitute danger not only to teenagers, but also to adults. Medicines of this group are not psychoactive agents, however because of dependence development not only endocrinologists and sports doctors, but also experts in the sphere of psychiatry and narcology pay to this problem attention.
Anabolic steroids – group of the medicines made on the basis of testosterone. Testosterone is the main men's hormone. It exerts impact on development of male genitals and emergence of secondary sexual characteristics (pilosis, including – emergence of hair in the person, formation of a noticeable Adam's apple, baldness, small amount of fat, men's type of a figure with a narrow basin and big shoulders). All listed effects are called androgenic action. Besides, testosterone has anabolic effect, slowing down removal of nitrogen and stimulating synthesis of protein in muscles.
In clinical practice anabolic steroids at men use at a delay of puberty, insufficiency of functions of gonads owing to a hypoplasia of testicles or their removal (for example, concerning a malignancy). At women small doses of anabolic steroids apply at fibrous and cystous mastopathy, endometriosis and some frustration in a postmenopause. Besides, medicines of this group are appointed to patients of both floors at treatment after severe injuries, large operations, extensive burns, chronic infections etc.
The most widespread anabolic steroids are retabolit, , , and . Slangy names - a forage or the EXPERT. All listed medicines are synthesized on the basis of testosterone, but testosterone in the medical or not medical purposes is not used because of very bystry destruction during metabolic processes. Strengthening of effect of derivatives of testosterone turns into more expressed side effects. Medicines not only intensify growth of muscles, but also increase aggression, increase a libido, cause a delay of potassium, sodium, phosphates, sulfates and water in an organism. Besides, synthetic anabolic steroids influence testicles, a hypophysis and a hypothalamus, oppressing production of endogenous hormones and breaking (sometimes – it is irreversible) hormonal balance.
Distribution and reasons of reception of anabolic steroids
Among athletes anabolic steroids became popular in the fifties the last century. In the beginning medicines were accepted only by male weight-lifters, then other athletes including women joined them. Uncontrolled reception continued till 1964. Then the use of hormones began to be limited gradually, and 1974 they were officially included in the list of dopes. Nevertheless, anabolic steroids continue to be used, is frequent – in amateur sport where there are no such rigid checks and restrictions. Medicines of this group are especially popular among admirers of bodybuilding. Derivatives of testosterone buy in gyms (including in the form of dietary supplements), write out on the Internet etc.
Steroids accept inside, intravenously or intramuscularly. Means for oral administration have more expressed destructive effect on a liver. They are quicker brought from an organism therefore athletes choose them during preparation for competitions that then it is safe to pass a drug test. Solutions for intravenous and intramuscular administration affect cells of a liver less, however at their reception danger of infection via the unsterile syringe increases. Phlebitis, abscesses and other complications are possible.
For the first time anabolic steroids use, as a rule, at youthful age. The example of age-mates becomes an incentive to reception of medicine, inherent I will increase impatience and desire as soon as possible to find a sports attractive body. "Philosophy" of reception of anabolic steroids as indispensable condition of good effect of occupations can be widespread in groups of the people who are going in for bodybuilding. Young people with weak mentality adopt this "philosophy" that leads to sharp increase in the importance of anabolic steroids in personal system of outlook. At long reception there is a psychological dependence.
Action of anabolic steroids on an organism
Steroids promote rapid growth of muscle bulk and strengthening of force of muscles. However these effects are reached only at constants, competently organized trainings. Reception of anabolic steroids without physical activity leads to some reduction of content of fat and intensifies growth of muscles a little, but these changes are hardly noticeable and practically do not affect appearance. Even at trainings the doses of medicines many times exceeding the level of natural testosterone in an organism are necessary for achievement of noticeable effect. Such rough intervention in a metabolism turns into a number of side effects.
Reception of anabolic steroids at teenage age leads to the premature termination of growth. The probability of emergence of acne rash increases. Baldness can develop (both at young men, and at girls). Sometimes the alopetion remains even after cancellation of means. At adult men steroids oppress production of testosterone testicles. At the long use sterility and reduction of the size of testicles is possible. Usually these processes are reversible, at full cancellation of anabolic steroids synthesis of natural hormones and production of sperm are restored, spermatozoa approximately within half a year find ability to fertilization. At some men the irreversible ginekomastiya (increase in mammary glands) develops.
At women growth of hair in the person and on a body is quite often observed, at big "experience" of the use there can be an irreversible increase and a posterization of a clitoris. Reception of anabolic steroids by persons of both floors involves violation of functions of a liver. At long reception steroid toxic hepatitis which outcome can be cirrhosis and the progressing liver failure develops. The probability of development of diabetes increases. Skin becomes fatter and is more often infected. The hair loss on the head is possible.
Steroids negatively influence immune system, leading to decrease in level of globulins in blood. The organism of the patient becomes more susceptible to infections, there are frequent colds, is frequent – with complications (bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis). More often casual wounds and grazes suppurate. Heart at reception of anabolic steroids increases, however growth of a cardiac muscle advances growth of vessels. In the thickness of the muscular tissue which is not receiving enough nutrients there are necrosis centers. Cases of sudden death as a result of heart attack are described.
Reception of anabolic steroids provokes increase in level of collagen and decrease in level of elastin in a vascular wall. Vessels become less elastic. Cholesterol level increases. Everything listed increases risk of development of vascular complications. Connecting fabric "lags behind" in growth muscular tissue that involves the high level of a travmatization. The patients who are regularly using anabolic steroids have ruptures of sheaves and sinews more often.
Steroids have no the direct damaging effect on cells of a brain, however they definitely influence behavior of the patient. The expressed mood swings – for joy to apathy and despondency are possible. Increase in level of aggression, tendency to disputes, irritability flashes is often observed. Quite often there is a thirst for violence or risky behavior. At some patients depressive frustration and steroid psychoses develop.
The cancellation syndrome at the use of anabolic steroids is still insufficiently studied. It is established that the reception termination often is followed by subdepressions, depressions and thoughts of a suicide. Allocate two phases of a syndrome of cancellation. Duration of the first phase makes about 1 week. Temperature increase, pains in joints (artralgiya), cold and other symptoms reminding a catarrhal disease can be observed.
The second phase lasts before half a year. Sharp somatovegetativny manifestations are not expressed, frustration of mood, a sleep disorder, a loss of appetite, bystry fatigue and discontent with prevail. The need to accept anabolic steroids is noted. Athletes often use anabolic steroids cycles. To avoid a cancellation syndrome, patients even during a break continue to accept small doses of medicine, motivating it with need not to allow disaccustoming of an organism which allegedly will cause decrease in effects of steroids.
Treatment and the forecast at abuse of anabolic steroids
The expressed mood swings, suicide thoughts and the need for steroids in attempt to stop reception of medicine are a reason for the address to the narcologist. Because of danger of development of a depression the plan of cancellation of anabolic steroids is defined individually for each patient, both the single, and gradual termination of the use is possible. Medicines cancel against the background of the supporting psychotherapy. Medicamentous therapy usually is not required, if necessary also antidepressants can be appointed soothing.
The forecast at abuse of anabolic steroids depends on a condition of an organism of the patient and level of its motivation. Cancellation of medicine does not involve the expressed physical sufferings, psychological violations are usually corrected within half a year. The majority of somatic and endocrine frustration have passing character and gradually disappear after cancellation of medicines. The greatest danger is constituted by damage of a liver. In the presence of toxic hepatitis treatment at the gastroenterologist is necessary. In the absence of motivation the forecast worsens, failures are observed.