Abuse of a holinolitikama
Abuse of a holinolitikama – reception of holinolitichesky means (a cyclodale, Dimedrol, atropine, a solutan) for achievement of a condition of euphoria. Usually has incidental or periodic character, it is often observed at polydrug addiction and polytoxicomanias. Less often the regular mono use meets. Medicines cause deliriozny disorders of consciousness with nonsense, visual hallucinations, psychomotor excitement and violation of orientation in surrounding reality. Development of mental and physical dependence is possible. At long abuse of a holinolitikama functions of heart and lungs are broken, organic defeat of TsNS develops.
Abuse of a holinolitikama
Abuse of a holinolitikama – regular, periodic or incidental reception of holinolitichesky means for achievement of a condition of euphoria. Occurs mainly among teenagers and young people. Medicines usually accept with the recreational purposes (in the course of some specific social activity). Abuse of a holinolitikama is quite often combined with other drug addiction and toxicomanias. Development of dependence is possible even at irregular reception of holinolitichesky medicines.
First place on prevalence is won by the use of a cyclodale. This psychoactive agent is often accepted together with other narcotic and toxic means: tranquilizers, Dimedrol, alcohol, barbiturates, hashish. The use of antihistamines and a dope as a separate form of abuse meets seldom today. Atropinsoderzhashchy and antihistaminic medicines usually combine with alcoholic drinks. Dimedrol is used as cure for extension of euphoria for opium drug addiction. Treatment of abuse of a holinolitikama is performed by experts in the field of narcology.
Holinolitichesky means – the big group of synthetic medicines and medicines of a phytogenesis having ability to block atsetilkholinovy receptors. In this group carry some medicines for treatment of parkinsonism (trigeksifenidit), antihistaminic medicines (, ) and tropane alkaloids (, and atropine) which contain in a dope, a skopoliya, a mandrake, a henbane, a belladonna and other plants.
Holinolitiki "join" atsetilkholinovy receptors and do not allow them to interact with acetylcholine. As a result of function of parasympathetic nervous system are substantially blocked, prevalence of sympathetic effects is noted. Various medicines from group of holinolitik influence different types of receptors. At reception of atropinsoderzhashchy means peripheral receptors are blocked, at the use of antihistamines – the central receptors, at reception of protivoparkinsonichesky medicines – both the central, and peripheral receptors.
Abuse of a holinolitikama is caused by ability of medicines to cause mental violations at excess of a therapeutic dose. At the simultaneous use of 3-4 therapeutic doses heavy disorders of consciousness usually are absent, raising of mood, fragmentary visual and acoustical hallucinations is noted. At further increase in a dose the deliriozny syndrome including nonsense, the developed visual and acoustical hallucinations, violation of orientation in the world around and psychomotor excitement develops. Orientation in own personality is kept.
The most widespread holinolitiky, used as narcotic medicine, is the cyclodale. Less often abuse of Dimedrol, atropinsoderzhashchy plants (a dope, a henbane) and tareny (aprofeny) – the medicine used for stimulation of patrimonial activity, elimination of spasms at cholecystitis, spastic colitis, hepatic and renal gripes, stomach ulcer and some diseases of vessels meets.
Abuse of a dope, Dimedrol and tareny
Dope – a wild-growing plant in which seeds contains , atropine and other alkaloids. For achievement of euphoria seeds use inside. At reception of 10-15 seeds there is a muscular relaxation, feeling of heat, dizziness and raising of mood. Sometimes intoxication reminds euphoria at a gashishizm. The dispepsichesky phenomena, heartbeat increase, noise, feeling of a raspiraniye or squeezing in the head can be observed. Intoxication remains within several hours, and then is replaced by a headache, weakness and weakness. Are often noted unsharply expressed an incoordination of movements.
At the use of high doses of a dope development of psychosis in type a deliriya is possible. The "foolish" behavior, motive excitement and frustration of the scheme of a body accompanied with face reddening, temperature increase, tachycardia, fluctuations HELL and expansion of pupils are observed. Psychosis duration – up to 1 days. In the next several days uneasiness, unmotivated fears, fussiness and sleep disorders can remain.
The isolated abuse holinolitiky Dimedrol meets seldom. Usually medicine is accepted along with alcohol for strengthening and a peculiar modification of intoxication. Perhaps combined abuse holinolitiky and opium drug (most often heroin) – in this case Dimedrol is used for extension of narcotic euphoria. At overdose of medicine the psychoses which are shown hallucinations, the crazy ideas, psychomotor excitement and disorders of consciousness develop.
Illegal use of a taren is connected with its ability to cause hallucinations. Medicine is accepted in the doses several times exceeding therapeutic. At the use there is a deliriozny disorder of consciousness in combination with bright acoustical, visual and tactile hallucinations. After getting out of state of intoxication patients keep sketchy memories of own experiences. Mental and physical dependence at reception of a taren is absent, accustoming does not arise.
Cyclodale and development of dependence
Cyclodale (, , , ) – the protivoparkinsonichesky medicine entering the list of the vital medicines. It is used for elimination of side effects of medicines from group of neuroleptics. At the patients having parkinsonism, the cyclodale reduces trembling of extremities, a gipersalivation and sweating. Exerts impact on a bradikineziya and a rigidnost. Among asocial teenagers is considered as inexpensive means for achievement of unusual euphoria.
The patients having tsiklodolovy drug addiction accept a cyclodale in tablets. For achievement of a condition of euphoria at the initial stage there is usually enough 2-4 tablets, sometimes narcotic effects arise at the use of a therapeutic dose. In risk group of abuse holinolitiky there are teenagers with addiktivny behavior practicing reception of various psychoactive agents for the purpose of receiving unusual feelings. The group incidental or periodic use prevails, at the same time most of teenagers choose a cyclodale purposefully, for obtaining hallucinogenic effects.
Requirement "becomes more rare the reception reason at initial stages not to lag behind others". The systematic single use is in some cases observed. At reception alone heavy dependence develops more often than at consumption in groups. Abuse holinolitiky a cyclodale quite often meets at other toxicomanias and at polydrug addiction. Medicine is accepted as means for elimination of symptoms of abstinency in the absence of habitual drug or used for strengthening of effects of the main narcotic substance.
The teenagers who do not have experience of the use of other psychoactive agents usually begin with 4-6 tablets. More "skilled" patients who are adjusted on obtaining hallucinatory effects take 8-10 pill at once. After the first use unpleasant feelings are possible: fear, alarm and nausea. If abuse holinolitiky continues, these feelings disappear after several receptions. Teenagers usually gather group and 1-2 times a week accept a cyclodale. 1,5-2 months later there are post-narcotic effects, euphoria is replaced by depression and internal tension. It demonstrates development of mental dependence.
At abuse holinolitiky tolerance gradually increases. After a while hallucinations at reception of 8-10 tablets disappear, and patients gradually increase a dose till 20-30 tablets. In 1-1,5 after the beginning of the use there is a physical dependence. The abstinence syndrome which is followed by the internal tension, concern and feeling of sincere trouble develops. Against the background of the progressing decrease in mood there are vegetative and somatic symptoms: trembling of all body, constraint of movements, the expressed increase in a muscular tone, twitching of muscles. Weakness, irritability and the progressing dysphoria in combination with pathological thirst for a cyclodale push patients to further abuse holinolitiky.
Symptoms of dependence on a cyclodale
In intoxication at abuse holinolitiky a cyclodale distinguish 4 phases. The first phase (euphoric) begins half an hour later after the use and is followed by increase in mood, optimism, tendency to see everything in pink tones. All negative experiences become insignificant. Patients are mobile, sociable, disseminated and inconsistent, they stir with other members of group, laugh, dance and sing.
In half an hour there comes the phase of the narrowed consciousness. Patients "retire into oneself", cease to communicate and plunge into own experiences. The derealization, depersonalization, violations of the scheme of a body (parts of a body seem others) and perception of surrounding objects is possible (objects change a form, ratios between objects are broken). The thinking is slowed down, it is difficult to patient to contact to people around, to watch others thought and to answer questions, however if necessary (for example, at contact with parents or police officers) they can concentrate and return to reality for a short time.
In 2-3 hours the phase of the narrowed consciousness either comes to the end, or passes into a phase of hallucinations. Patients cease to be guided in time and the place. Surrounding it seems distorted by it, unusual. In the beginning there are fragmentary hallucinations: separate sounds, calls or clicks, circles or points before eyes. After a while there are developed stsenopodobny hallucinations of fantastic contents. Hallucinations can be both positive, and awful, however patients do not feel fear, even seeing scenes of cruelty or the chopped-off extremities.
At abuse holinolitiky the mood of patients changes depending on the maintenance of hallucinations. Upon termination of intoxication patients often compare seen pictures to animated films. Against the background of the use of a cyclodale often there are negative hallucinations. It seems to patients that some objects (for example, a cigarette at them in a hand) appear, disappear. At external survey of patients tachycardia, increase in arterial pressure, deterioration in coordination of movements and expansion of pupils come to light. Eyes are muddy, skin and mucous membranes dry, pale.
Abuse holinolitiky can be followed by development of sharp psychotic states. At overdose the sharp psychosis which is followed by consciousness violations is possible. At the initial stage there are fragmentary visual hallucinations: small animals, objects, insects. Then hallucinations become developed, stsenopodobny, menacing. Crazy frustration join. Deliriozny violations of consciousness are supplemented with psychomotor excitement.
Already at the initial stages of abuse holinolitiky activity of the central nervous system is broken. At regular reception of a cyclodale within half a year and more at patients delay of thinking, deterioration in cognitive functions, difficulties in attempt to concentrate attention and violations of memory come to light. Characteristic vegetative and neurologic frustration are observed: the muscular tone is raised, twitchings of separate muscles and trembling of fingers are noted. The person becomes pale, against the background of the general pallor on cheeks "pattern" in the form of a butterfly is well visible.
At abuse holinolitiky within 1-1,5 and more years the abstinence syndrome develops. The first manifestations of abstinency become noticeable days later after the last reception of a cyclodale. Patients feel dissatisfaction and internal tension. The feeling of the general trouble increases, concern level increases. Against the background of the progressing deterioration in mood there is a weakness and apathy. Working capacity decreases. The tone of muscles raises, the movements become held down, the person takes a masklike form, trembling of a trunk and extremities is noted. The patients suffering from abuse holinolitiky complain of back pains. Symptoms of abstinency remain within 1-2 weeks, and then are replaced by the expressed adynamy.
Treatment and the forecast at dependence on a cyclodale
Patients with tsiklodolovy deliriy are hospitalized in narcological office. At psychomotor excitement apply fixing that patients did not do harm to themselves or people around. Intramuscularly enter or diazepam. After a medicine injection patients fall asleep and wake up already in clear consciousness, but with adynamy signs. For prevention of a recurrence perform dezintoksikatsionny therapy. If necessary carry out the symptomatic treatment directed to restoration of functions of various bodies and systems.
Planned treatment at abuse holinolitiky includes detoksikatsionny actions, symptomatic therapy and correctional psychotherapy. Apply rational, behavioural and suggestive techniques to elimination of mental dependence on a cyclodale and development of new patterns of behavior. Individual consultations supplement with group occupations. If necessary invite parents for performing family therapy. Carry out actions for social rehabilitation of teenagers. Patients a long time are under observation of the narcologist.
The forecast at abuse holinolitiky depends on the level of motivation of the patient, weight and duration of a disease. At competent complex treatment at initial stages of a disease many patients manage to get rid of dependence finally. Predictively the cases of constant long abuse which are followed by organic defeat of TsNS, disorders of thinking and decrease in criticism to the state are adverse. In hard cases organic dementia, violations of activity of respiratory and cardiovascular systems can become an outcome.