Foot-and-mouth disease – the acute infectious disease of a virus etiology which is characterized by vesicular and erosive defeat of integumentary fabrics (mainly mucous membranes of a mouth and skin of extremities), followed by an intoksikatsionny syndrome. Infection with a foot-and-mouth disease comes from a livestock and wild animals in generally contact way, but also the food way is possible. The clinical picture consists of sharp conjunctivitis, widespread aftozny stomatitis, all-infectious symptoms and defeat of integuments around a mouth, on nose wings, in interdigital intervals.
Foot-and-mouth disease – the acute infectious disease of a virus etiology which is characterized by vesicular and erosive defeat of integumentary fabrics (mainly mucous membranes of a mouth and skin of extremities), followed by an intoksikatsionny syndrome.
Characteristic of the activator
The activator of a pangolin – the RNA-containing sort Aphtovirus virus. Has high virulence and has affinity with epitelialny structures of integuments and mucous membranes. The virus is steady in the external environment, is capable to keep viability on hair of animals up to 4 weeks, up to 3,5 weeks – on clothes. Easily transfers freezing and drying, it is inactivated during the heating, radiation of UF, influence of disinfecting solutions (usually apply formalin solutions (1%), alkalis (2%), an ethylene oxide (1%)).
The tank and source of a foot-and-mouth disease are hoofed animals – both wild, and a livestock. Some rodents are susceptible to a virus of a foot-and-mouth disease, but they do not take significant part in spread of an infection. Birds do not get sick with a foot-and-mouth disease, but can transfer the activator at migration. Allocation of the activator sick animals happens to milk, saliva, excrements, urine. The sick person does not constitute epidemiological danger.
The foot-and-mouth disease is transmitted through the contact mechanism, infection occurs at hit of a virus on the injured skin or a mucous membrane. Infection often occurs at care of animals, processing of skins, wool, at inhalation of the dust suspension containing viruses. Realization of a food way of infection at the use of dairy and meat products raw properly from sick animals is possible. In view of high stability in the environment the virus of a foot-and-mouth disease can be brought to areas, remote from the infection centers, affecting farm animals.
The natural susceptibility of people to a foot-and-mouth disease is quite low, after transferring of a disease type-specific immunity is formed short (up to one and a half years). A foot-and-mouth disease – mainly occupational disease, is widespread in rural areas and among employees of the agricultural livestock enterprises, meat-processing plants, persons who are engaged in a face of the cattle and processing of animal raw materials. Out of this group the disease is noted at children after the use of the infected dairy products.
Foot-and-mouth disease symptoms
The incubatory period of a foot-and-mouth disease can make from 2 to 12 days, last on average 3-4 days. The beginning of a disease sharp, often – sudden. The fever and sharp temperature increase of a body, a headache, an ache in extremities, a waist is noted. By the end of the first day of a disease usually note burning in a mouth, a gipersalivation. There can be a damage of a mucous membrane of an urethra which is shown in the form of sharply painful urination.
Survey of patients reveals irritation and a giperemirovannost of a conjunctiva, increase and morbidity of regionarny lymph nodes, mucous is expressed to a mouth is edematous, hyperemic, covered small, filled with transparent or rather turbid contents, bubbles (aft). Afta mainly settle down at the edges and on a tip of edematous language. Days later bubbles are opened, leaving behind erosion which can merge, forming extensive erozirovanny sites (now such prevalence of erosive process rather seldom meets).
At large-scale damage of a mucous membrane of a mouth there are difficulties in the speech, swallowing, the gipersalivation (progresses up to the saliva expiration by a stream). The lips of patients which usually swelled up a little on them are noted crusts, erosion can arise on skin around a mouth, nose wings, a conjunctiva. Also damage of skin pleated between fingers, about nails is sometimes noted. In certain cases skin manifestations (for example, on hands) are not followed by damage of a mouth.
The foot-and-mouth disease at children proceeds more hard, the abdominal symptomatology (belly-ache, dispepsichesky frustration, diarrhea) is quite often noted. Erosion epitelizirutsya 4-5 days later, fever falls down. The absolute recovery comes in 10-15 days, but at considerable defeats, the combined erosion of skin and mucous membrane sometimes drags on for a month and more. Are in certain cases noted repeated formation of vesicles.
The foot-and-mouth disease becomes complicated quite seldom, the arising complications are mainly connected with a secondary infection. It can be pneumonia, myocarditis, purulent diseases of skin and mucous, sepsis, etc.
Diagnosis of a foot-and-mouth disease
The activator is allocated from scrape from erosion, saliva, excrements, however in mass clinical practice virologic methods of diagnostics do not apply in view of labor input. Serological diagnosis of a foot-and-mouth disease is performed by means of HCR and RNGA in pair serums (a material intake at an interval of 7 days). Sometimes make a biological test on guinea pigs (in small pillows of paws of animals rub separated the patient).
Treatment of a foot-and-mouth disease
Treatment of a foot-and-mouth disease is performed in a hospital, the main therapeutic measures are directed to care of an oral cavity, local treatment, simplification of symptomatology. For the period of the expressed damages of a mouth patients eat semi-fluid digestible food of the moderate temperature which is not containing the irritating components. In case of need (extensive defeats) food is carried out via the probe or parenterally.
Locally apply ointments (oksolinovy, florenalevy, interferon), physiotherapeutic techniques (ultra-violet and laser radiation). Symptomatic means (the soothing, febrifugal, cardiovascular and desensibilizing means) are appointed according to indications. If necessary make dezintoksikatsionny actions. In the all-strengthening purposes vitamins and adaptogens are appointed.
The forecast at a foot-and-mouth disease is usually favorable, in most cases the disease comes to an end with recovery, without leaving behind pathological consequences. The serious forecast has hard proceeding foot-and-mouth disease at children of early age which in certain cases is coming to an end with a lethal outcome.
Prevention of a foot-and-mouth disease
The basis of prevention is made by veterinary control of the state of health of farm animals, timely planned vaccination (it is made by the inactivated yashchurny vaccines), quarantine measures concerning sick animals. Besides, sanitary and hygienic control of the state of health and working conditions of employees of the agricultural enterprises is exercised.
Individual prevention consists in observance of measures of personal hygiene during the work with the cattle, animal raw materials, protection from traumatizing integuments. In addition, it is necessary to use dairy and meat products, in particular, the precautionary measures which underwent necessary processing are important at implementation of feeding of children. Immunization of people is not carried out.