Argiroz – the dermatological disease arising because of the increased receipt of ions of silver in an organism and its subsequent adjournment in an integument and its appendages. The main symptom of a disease is darkening of skin and mucous membranes up to a livid shade, in hard cases sight violations are also observed. Diagnostics of an argiroz is based on data of the anamnesis (identification of contact with silver), survey of the patient, sometimes also use histologic studying of skin and ophthalmologic survey. Treatment of this disease does not exist, it is possible to clarify only slightly skin by means of method of medical cosmetology (for example, a laser dermabraziya).
Argiroz, or an argiriya, is a consequence of long contact or receipt in a silver organism – as in the form of connections or ions, and in pure form (silver dust, colloidal silver). This state is known since the most ancient times, generally the persons working at silver mines, production of mirrors and jewelry suffered from it earlier. In the 20th century mass use of medicines on the basis of this metal was added to these reasons of an argiroz – in particular, widely known lyapisny pencil contains silver nitrate. This element has the expressed bactericidal properties, but at the same time its toxicity for the person is quite low. Nevertheless, high doses of ions of silver are capable to cause a serious poisoning, the deadly dosage of nitrate of silver makes about 10 grams. The continuous contact with this metal is necessary for development of an argiroz long (not less than several years), but.
Reasons of an argiroz
At receipt of ions of silver in a human body they only partly participate in metabolism, however it leads to an argiroz not at once. They are carried on all fabrics, but in some of them conditions for metal accumulation are created – generally it is the top layers terms, sweat glands, a cornea, mucous membranes. It is possible to find in any adult or the elderly person in these fabrics microscopic inclusions of silver, however in this case the speech about an argiroza does not go – metal to them so a little that it does not influence coloring of integuments in any way. However if the increased quantity of these ions comes to an organism, then the number of such deposits increases that leads over time to noticeable change of skin color. To be made in that case the diagnosis "".
Now the main sources of silver are some medicines, cosmetics, dentures on the basis of alloys of this metal. Cases of development of an argiroz because of the long-term use of the "silvered" water by means of an electrophoresis or application in the same purposes of colloidal silver are described. Also as well as in the ancient time, occurs at the workers contacting to this metal – in that case it is possible to speak about the professional nature of a disease. It is found out that noticeable change of coloring of skin requires not less than 10-12 years of regular contact with this element or its connections.
Symptoms of an argiroz
In dermatology allocate two main forms of an argiroz – local and generalized. Development of this or that form of a disease depends on amount of the laid silver in an organism, from this point of view they can be considered as consecutive stages of this violation. At a local argiroz adjournment of metal is limited to skin of periorbitalny area and a cornea, however no problems with sight at the same time are observed. The generalized form is characterized by darkening of other sites of skin – at the same time degree of expressiveness of symptoms also is depending on amount of the arrived silver in an organism and duration of its accumulation.
Extent of darkening of skin at the general argiroz can vary from light gray to dark-silvery. As a rule, open parts of the body – a face, a neck, hands are exposed to the greatest pigmentation. In hard cases the body of the person gets uniform dark-silvery coloring and gloss. At an argiroza of such degree noticeable deposits are observed not only on skin, but also in deep layers of a cornea that in certain cases slightly weakens sight. In case of continuation of intake of silver in an organism it begins to be postponed in a retina and tissues of an optic nerve, leading to a gemeralopiya and considerable decrease in visual acuity. All above described symptoms of an argiroz develop very slowly for many years, however so expressed pigmentation often becomes the reason of complexes and psychological problems at the patient.
Diagnostics of an argiroz
In most cases diagnostics of an argiroz does not represent for the dermatologist of a special problem – at survey integuments come to light gray, sometimes with a silvery outflow. At inquiry of the patient it becomes clear that such changes accrued at it for many years. Also the silver source in an organism is defined. If the patient cannot tell under what circumstances he contacted to this metal, then the doctor has to find out whether he uses any drugs, whether he uses a lyapisny pencil where he works – all these data can help to establish the reason of development of an argiroz.
Histologic studying of skin shows existence of gray inclusions in cages of the top layer terms, and also intercellular space. At an argiroza the increased number of similar inclusions will be observed around sweat glands and hair follicles, and, on the contrary, lowered – in sebaceous glands. Ophthalmologic survey finds deposits of silver in a cornea in the form of the thin bound threads of gray-blue color. At the expressed forms of an argiroz of grain of the besieged metal can be found in a vitreous body. The sight violations caused by it a state are followed by hypostasis of a disk of an optic nerve and existence of dark stains on a retina. Differential diagnostics of an argiroz should be carried out with hemochromatosis, Addison's disease, a porfiriya and a metgemoglobinemiya – states at which pigmentation of integuments is also observed.
Treatment of an argiroz
Treatment of an argiroz at the moment does not exist, only at early stages it is possible to try to clarify a little skin by a laser dermabraziya. However, considering that the bulk of inclusions of silver is located below epidermis, efficiency of this technique is called into question by a number of dermatologists. The most important at identification of an argiroz – to eliminate intake of this metal and its connections in an organism for prevention of further progressing of symptoms of a disease. It is for this purpose important to define correctly a silver source – medicinal or cosmetic, the drinking silvered water, professional factors.
The forecast of an argiroz concerning life and health of the person favorable, but often patients is psychologically weighed by symptoms of this state. Prevention of an argiroz comes down to the correct and limited use medicinal and cosmetics with the content of this metal, to implementation of requirements of safety measures during the work with it.