Allergic Diseases

Article type:
Basic article

Allergic diseases, such as eczema, hay fever and asthma, are usually diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history. Allergy can be defined as a detrimental immune-mediated hypersensitivity response to common environmental substances.

Allergic Diseases

  1. Acute Asthma
  2. Angioedema
  3. Asthma, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Sports
  4. Biologics and Biomarkers for Asthma, Atopic Dermatitis, Urticaria, and Nasal Polyposis
  5. Allergen Avoidance
  6. Allergen Immunotherapy
  7. Anaphylaxis 
  8. Diagnostic Approach to the Adult with Suspected Immune Deficiency
  9. Drug Allergies
  10. Urticaria
  11. Vaccination and the Risk of Atopy and Asthma 
  12. Eczema, Atopic Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis
  13. Food Allergy
  14. IgE in Clinical Allergy and Allergy Diagnosis
  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma: Similarities and Differences
  16. Combined Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Syndrome
  17. Contact Dermatitis
  18. Diagnosis of Occupational Asthma 
  19. Influenza and Asthma
  20. Latex Allergy Diagnosis and Management
  21. Mastocytosis
  22. Allergen Standardization and Characterization
  23. Allergen Specific Immunotherapy Document 
  24. Allergic Diseases and Asthma in Pregnancy
  25. Allergic March
  26. Allergic Remodeling
  27. Allergy Diagnostic Testing
  28. Allergy to Insect Stings and Bites 
  29. Rhinitis — In-Depth Review
  30. Rhinosinusitis — Synopsis
  31. Sensitizing Agents Inducers of Occupational Asthma, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Eosinophilic Bronchitis 
  32. NSAIDs Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (N-ERD)
  33. Ocular Allergy
  34. Perioperative Allergic Reactions
  35. Pharmacotherapy
  36. Treatment of Asthma in Children 5 Years and Under
  37. Upper Airway Edema
  38. Vasculiti

The majority of such reactions are IgE-mediated (type I) reactions. Individuals who develop such reactions are allergic. Allergic diseases are caused by the activation of mast cells and basophils through cell-surface-bound IgE. The genetic basis is polygenic and may include regions such as certain HLA haplotypes, as well as non-MHC genes such as the IgE receptor on chromosome 11. 

Chemical mediators are released which lead to the immediate signs and symptoms of allergic diseases. More prolonged reactions follow if significant numbers of other cells including eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are drawn into sites of mast cell activation. 

Mehanism of allergy

The atopic march

Management of allergic disease

An allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, is a pediatrician or internist with at least two additional years of specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of problems such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases and the evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent infections, such as immunodeficiency diseases.

This is the primary form of treatment for food allergies and some stinging insect allergies, as avoidance can be a very effective strategy if patients are well educated about precautionary measures. For example, a person allergic to jumper-ant venom can minimise the chances of being stung by wearing shoes and long-sleeved shirts when outdoors and gloves when gardening. Accurate diagnosis of food allergies can enable patients to minimise the disruption to their lives caused by an unnecessarily restrictive diet.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy involves administration of increasing doses of allergen to a patient to achieve clinical and immunological tolerance over time.

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