Allergic diseases, such as eczema, hay fever and asthma, are usually diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history. Allergy can be defined as a detrimental immune-mediated hypersensitivity response to common environmental substances.
- Acute Asthma
- Asthma, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Sports
- Biologics and Biomarkers for Asthma, Atopic Dermatitis, Urticaria, and Nasal Polyposis
- Allergen Avoidance
- Allergen Immunotherapy
- Diagnostic Approach to the Adult with Suspected Immune Deficiency
- Drug Allergies
- Vaccination and the Risk of Atopy and Asthma
- Eczema, Atopic Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis
- Food Allergy
- IgE in Clinical Allergy and Allergy Diagnosis
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma: Similarities and Differences
- Combined Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Syndrome
- Contact Dermatitis
- Diagnosis of Occupational Asthma
- Influenza and Asthma
- Latex Allergy Diagnosis and Management
- Allergen Standardization and Characterization
- Allergen Specific Immunotherapy Document
- Allergic Diseases and Asthma in Pregnancy
- Allergic March
- Allergic Remodeling
- Allergy Diagnostic Testing
- Allergy to Insect Stings and Bites
- Rhinitis — In-Depth Review
- Rhinosinusitis — Synopsis
- Sensitizing Agents Inducers of Occupational Asthma, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Eosinophilic Bronchitis
- NSAIDs Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (N-ERD)
- Ocular Allergy
- Perioperative Allergic Reactions
- Treatment of Asthma in Children 5 Years and Under
- Upper Airway Edema
The majority of such reactions are IgE-mediated (type I) reactions. Individuals who develop such reactions are allergic. Allergic diseases are caused by the activation of mast cells and basophils through cell-surface-bound IgE. The genetic basis is polygenic and may include regions such as certain HLA haplotypes, as well as non-MHC genes such as the IgE receptor on chromosome 11.
Chemical mediators are released which lead to the immediate signs and symptoms of allergic diseases. More prolonged reactions follow if significant numbers of other cells including eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are drawn into sites of mast cell activation.
Mehanism of allergy
The atopic march
Management of allergic disease
An allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, is a pediatrician or internist with at least two additional years of specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of problems such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases and the evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent infections, such as immunodeficiency diseases.
This is the primary form of treatment for food allergies and some stinging insect allergies, as avoidance can be a very effective strategy if patients are well educated about precautionary measures. For example, a person allergic to jumper-ant venom can minimise the chances of being stung by wearing shoes and long-sleeved shirts when outdoors and gloves when gardening. Accurate diagnosis of food allergies can enable patients to minimise the disruption to their lives caused by an unnecessarily restrictive diet.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy involves administration of increasing doses of allergen to a patient to achieve clinical and immunological tolerance over time.