Askaridoz at children – the parasitic disease developing at infection of the child with round helminths – ascarids. Askaridoz at children can be shown by an indisposition, fever, local allergic reactions, cough, abdominal and astenovegetativny syndromes, digestion violation, decrease in body weight. Diagnostics of an askaridoz at children includes the analysis kliniko-epidemiological yielded, results of the general blood test, serological researches, the analysis a calla on eggs of helminths. At an askaridoza at children appoint antigelmintny medicines.
Askaridoz at children
Askaridoz – one of the most widespread helminthic infections (helminthoses) caused by parasitic roundworms of Ascaris lumbricoides. The main contingent of patients is made by children of younger age. The activator of an askaridoz at the child – the ascarid human has the spindle-shaped form, white-pink color and rather large sizes (females – to 40 cm, males – to 25 cm). Ascarids are capable to parasitize in various bodies of the child, but their main habitat – thin department of intestines. Askaridoz at children treats antroponozny geohelminthoses: the only biological owner of helminth is the person, and maturing of eggs happens in the soil.
The reasons and pathogenesis of an askaridoz at children
Soil infection source with eggs of helminths is sick askaridozy the person. Ascarids in the external environment are not viable, and their eggs can remain in the soil many years. Infection askaridozy at children is carried out in the fecal and oral way at a proglatyvaniye of eggs of ascarids with the larvae which ripened to an invasive stage.
The greatest risk of infection askaridozy is available for children in the summer and in the fall because of insufficient observance of rules of personal hygiene after contact with the earth and a grass (during walk at the playground, in a sandbox); at the use of dirty vegetables, fruit, greens, not boiled water.
Life cycle of an ascarid includes several phases of development. From the mature eggs of ascarids which got into intestines larvae which get through a mucous membrane into a vorotny vein are released and, circulating on the blood course, extend in a liver, a gall bladder, the right ventricle of heart, lungs and bronchial tubes. At an otkashlivaniye with a bronchial secret of a larva get into a mouth and when swallowing with saliva – repeatedly into a small intestine where reach a polovozrely state.
The period before development of an adult individual of an ascarid takes 2,5-3 months the infection moment that corresponds to an early migratory stage of a disease. During a late intestinal stage of an askaridoz at children in an organism adult worms parasitize. In days the female of an ascarid lays to a quarter of one million unripe eggs which are allocated with the patient's excrements outside. Life expectancy of adult individuals of ascarids – no more than 12 months then they perish. The new generation of larvae in the same organism cannot appear, and even for lack of treatment at children completely stops approximately in a year if during this time there was no repeated infection (including autoreinvaziya).
Symptoms of an askaridoz at children
Askaridoz at children at a small amount of parasites can proceed in the erased form. Sometimes the expressed displays of intoxication and an allergy can be noted at the child in the first weeks after infection askaridozy (in an early migratory stage).
There are a general malaise, fever to 38 °C, pain behind a breast, allergic rash and an itch of skin, cough dry or with a mucous phlegm, sometimes - pleurisy. At an askaridoza at children increase in a liver, spleen, lymph nodes is noted.
In an intestinal stage of an askaridoz at children the symptoms of disorder of digestion connected with decrease in acidity of gastric juice and activity of enzymes, deterioration in processes of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients prevail. At an askaridoza of children periodic belly-aches (an abdominal syndrome), lack of appetite, sometimes - disgust for food, the raised salivation, nausea, intolerance of some products, a meteorizm and an unstable chair, decrease in body weight, frequent catarrhal diseases begin to disturb.
Violations from nervous system (an astenovegetativny syndrome) are characteristic of an askaridoz: at children bystry fatigue, decrease in memory, absent-mindedness, irritability, an uneasy dream, emergence of vestibular violations, giperkinez and epileptiformny spasms is noted.
Complications of an askaridoz at children
Askaridoz at children is dangerous by the complications. Larvae of ascarids cause the mechanical damages of walls of various bodies and blood vessels which are followed by limited or considerable hemorrhages, inflammatory infiltrates, micronecroses and ulcerations (sometimes – perforation) tissues of a liver, small intestine, lungs.
The waste products emitted to larvae and adult ascarids have strong toxic and allergic effect on an organism. Askaridoz at children leads to a sensitization of all organism and development of pronounced general and local allergic reactions in the form of asthmatic suffocation and a small tortoiseshell.
Askaridoz at children promotes development of dysbacteriosis; oppressing immune system, raises a susceptibility to various infections. In pediatrics at children is a contraindication to performing preventive vaccination in view of its low efficiency.
At a massive invasion at children can be complicated by a mechanical or spastic obturation of a gleam of intestines, a worm-shaped shoot and bilious channels that results in intestinal impassability, attacks of an acute appendicitis, a holangit, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, development of mechanical jaundice. In the endemic centers of an askaridoz at the weakened children of early age heavy pneumonia with a lethal outcome can develop.
Diagnostics of an askaridoz at children
Diagnostics of an early stage of an askaridoz at children is based on kliniko-epidemiological data and existence of additional signs: a leykotsitoza and eozinofiliya – in the general blood test, larvae in microscopic dab of a phlegm, eozinofilny infiltrates at a X-ray analysis of lungs. The offered serological methods of diagnostics of an askaridoz at children (reaction of a pretsipitation on live larvae of ascarids, reaction of indirect hemagglutination with an askaridozny anti-gene, etc.) were not widely adopted.
More exact diagnostics of an askaridoz at children is possible in 3 months after infection, during a chronic intestinal stage of a disease when worms become polovozrely. The laboratory research a calla on eggs of helminths is for this purpose conducted.
Treatment of an askaridoz at children
To children with the established diagnosis of an askaridoz protivogelmintny medicamentous therapy is appointed; the type of medicines and duration of a course of treatment are selected the pediatrician depending on disease severity.
In an early migratory stage of an askaridoz at children appoint the desensibilizing and anitigelmintny means – or , possessing a wide range of protivonematodny activity. Pulmonary manifestations stop reception of bronkholitichesky and kortikosteroidny medicines.
At children apply to treatment of an intestinal stage of an askaridoz for choice: - once; pyranbodies - once; piperazin, – to children is more senior than 2 years, especially at a polyinvasion.
Efficiency of treatment of an askaridoz at children these medicines - makes 80-100%. In a month after treatment control examination of the child is conducted.
The forecast and prevention of an askaridoz at children
In uncomplicated cases of an askaridoz antigelmintny treatment leads usually to an absolute recovery of children without any consequences; in the complicated cases the forecast depends on weight of the developed complication.
Primary prevention of an askaridoz at children consists in observance of measures of personal hygiene, secondary – in holding sanitary and hygienic actions (protection of the soil and reservoirs from fecal pollution, active identification and treatment of patients askaridozy, informing the population).