Asperger's syndrome - the frustration of an autistic range which is characterized by specific difficulties of social interaction. Children with Asperger's syndrome have problems with nonverbal communication, establishment and maintenance of friendly contacts; are inclined to the same behavior and actions; have the slowed-down motility, the stereotypified speech, narrowly targeted and, at the same time, great interests. The diagnosis of a syndrome of Asperger is established on the basis of data of psychiatric, clinical, neurologic examination. Children with Asperger's syndrome need development of skills of social interaction, psychology and pedagogical support, medical correction of the main symptoms.
Asperger's syndrome – the general violation of development relating to high-functional autism at which ability to socialization remains rather safe. It agrees the classification accepted in modern psychiatry, Asperger's syndrome enters the five of violations of an autistic range, along with early children's autism (Kanner's syndrome), children's dezintegrativny frustration, Rhett's syndrome, nonspecific pervazivny violation of development (atypical autism). According to foreign authors, the signs meeting criteria of a syndrome of Asperger occur at 0,36-0,71% of school students, at the same time at 30-50% of children this syndrome remains not diagnosed. Asperger's syndrome by 2-3 times meets among male population more often.
The syndrome was called by name the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger observing group of children with similar symptoms which he characterized as "an autistic psychopathia". Since 1981 the name "Asperger's syndrome" was assigned to this frustration in psychiatry. Children with Asperger's syndrome have poorly developed abilities to social interaction, behavioural problems, difficulties with training in this connection require special attention from teachers, children's psychologists and psychiatrists.
Reasons of a syndrome of Asperger
Studying of the reasons of a syndrome of Asperger continues so far and far from the end. Still primary morphological substratum and pathogenesis of a disease are not revealed.
As a working hypothesis moves forward assumptions of the autoimmune reaction of a maternal organism causing injury of a brain of a fruit. A lot of talk is carried on about negative consequences of preventive inoculations, negative influence of mercury-containing preservatives in vaccines, and also the complex vaccination which is allegedly overloading immune system of the child. Also the theory of hormonal failure at the child (low or high level of cortisol, the raised testosterone level) did not find reliable scientific confirmation so far; communication between autistic disorders, including Asperger's syndrome, and prematurity, a syndrome of deficiency of attention and a hyperactivity is studied.
Probable risk factors of development of a syndrome of Asperger are called genetic predisposition, a male, impact of toxic substances on the developing fruit in the first months of pregnancy, pre-natal and post-natal viral infections (a rubella, toxoplasmosis, a cytomegalic inclusion disease, herpes, etc.).
Characteristic of a syndrome of Asperger
Social difficulties at children with Asperger's syndrome
Asperger's syndrome is the difficult general (pervazivny) violation leaving a mark on all parties of the identity of the child. The structure of frustration includes difficulties of socialization, narrowly targeted, but intensive interests; features of a speech profile and behavior. Unlike classical autism, children with Asperger's syndrome have average (sometimes above an average) intelligence and a certain lexicographic base.
Signs, usually characteristic of Asperger's syndrome, become noticeable by 2-3 years and can vary from moderated to hard expressed. At infantile age Asperger's syndrome can be shown by the increased tranquility of the child or, on the contrary, irritability, mobility, the sleep disorder (complicated by falling asleep, frequent awakenings, a sensitive dream and so forth), selectivity in food. Communication violations, specific to Asperger's syndrome, are early shown. The children attending kindergarten hardly leave parents, badly adapt to new conditions, do not play with other children, do not enter the friendly relations, preferring to keep separately.
Difficulties of adaptation do the child vulnerable in the face of infections therefore children with Asperger's syndrome belong to the category of often ill. In turn, it limits social interaction of children with peers even more, and to school age signs of a syndrome of Asperger become pronounced.
Disorder of social behavior at children with Asperger's syndrome is shown in tolerance to the emotions and feelings of other people expressed by a mimicry, gestures, speech shades; inability to expression of own emotional state. Therefore children with Asperger's syndrome often seem egocentric, stale, emotionally cold, tactless, not predicted in the behavior. Many of them badly transfer touches of other people, practically do not look in the face to the interlocutor or look the unusual fixed look (as at an inanimate object).
The child experiences the greatest difficulties with Asperger's syndrome at communication with the peers, preferring society of adults or children of younger age. During interaction with other children (joint games, the solution of tasks) the child with Asperger's syndrome tries to impose to people around the rules, does not make a compromise, cannot cooperate, does not accept others ideas. In turn, children's collective also begins to tear away such child that brings a bigger social isolation of children with Asperger's syndrome. Teenagers hard transfer the loneliness, at them the depression, tendency to a suicide, drug and alcoholic addiction can be observed.
Features of intelligence and verbal communication at children with Asperger's syndrome
The intelligence quotient at children with Asperger's syndrome can be in limits of age norm or even to exceed it. However when training children the insufficient level of development of abstract thinking and ability to judgment, lack of skill of the independent solution of tasks comes to light. With infallible memory and encyclopedic knowledge, children sometimes cannot adequately apply the knowledge in the necessary situations. At the same time, children-aspergery often try to obtain achievements in those areas in which with enthusiasm are interested: usually it is history, philosophy, geography, mathematics, programming.
The focus of interest of the child with a syndrome Asperger is limited, however they are given to the hobbies passionately and fanatically. At the same time they excessively concentrate on details, concentrate on trifles, "go in cycles" in the hobby, constantly stay in the world of the thoughts and imaginations.
At children with Asperger's syndrome the tempo arrest of development of the speech is not noted, and by 5-6 years their speech development considerably is ahead of peers. The speech of the child with a syndrome Asperger grammatical correct, but differs slow or accelerated, monotony and an unnatural timbre of a voice. Excessive academism and book style of the speech, existence of speech templates promote that the child is often called "little professor".
Children with Asperger's syndrome can tell very long and in detail about the subject interesting them, without monitoring at the same time reaction of the interlocutor. Often they are not capable first to begin a conversation and to support the conversation going beyond area of their interests. That is, despite potentially high skills of the speech, children are not capable to use language as the communication medium. The semantic dyslexia – mechanical reading without understanding read often occurs at children with Asperger's syndrome. At the same time children can have the increased abilities to a written statement of the thoughts.
Features of the touch and motor sphere of children with Asperger's syndrome
Children with Asperger's syndrome are characterized by disorder of touch sensitivity which is shown in the raised susceptibility to various visual, sound, tactile incentives (to bright light, a sound of the dripping water, street noise, touches to a body, to the head, etc.). Since the childhood of asperger the excessive pedantry and stereotype of behavior distinguishes. Children follow routine rituals day by day, and any change of conditions or an operations procedure throws them into confusion, causes alarm and concern. Very often children with Asperger's syndrome have strictly certain gastronomic addictions and categorically deny any new dishes.
The child with Asperger's syndrome can have unusual persuasive fears (fear of a rain, wind, etc.) which differ from fears of children of their age. At the same time in dangerous situations they can have no instinct of self-preservation and necessary care.
As a rule, at the child with a syndrome Asperger motor skills and coordination of movements are broken. They longer, than peers, cannot learn to button and tie laces; the school has uneven, inaccurate handwriting because of what receive constant remarks. At children-aspergerov the stereotypic persuasive movements, awkwardness, violations of a bearing and gait can be observed.
Diagnostics of a syndrome of Asperger
Lines of a syndrome of Asperger can be found in the child by the parents, tutors, teachers, doctors of various specialties watching development of children (the pediatrician, the children's neurologist, the logopedist, the children's psychologist, etc.). However the final right of confirmation of the diagnosis remains for the children's or teenage psychiatrist. In diagnostics of a syndrome of Asperger methods of questioning, interviewing of parents and teachers, observations of the child, neuropsychological tests are widely used. Criteria of diagnostics of a syndrome of Asperger are developed by WHO and allow to estimate ability of the child to different types of social contacts.
Treatment and the forecast at Asperger's syndrome
Special treatment of a syndrome of Asperger does not exist. As pharmacological support in an individual order psychotropic drugs (neuroleptics, psychostimulators, antidepressants) can be appointed. Non-drug therapy includes trainings of social skills, LFK, occupation with the logopedist, cognitive and behavioural psychotherapy.
Success of social adaptation of children with Asperger's syndrome in many respects depends on the organization of the correct psychology and pedagogical escort of the "special" child at various stages of his life. In spite of the fact that children with Asperger's syndrome can attend comprehensive school, they need the individualized training conditions (the organization of the stable environment, creation of the motivation promoting the academic progress, escort of the tutor, etc.).
Development violation completely is not overcome therefore the child with Asperger's syndrome grows up in the adult with the same problems. A third of patients with Asperger's syndrome are capable to live in adult age independently, to establish a family, to work at usual work. At 5% of persons of a problem of social adaptation are completely compensated and can be revealed only by means of neuropsychological testing. Especially successful are people who found themselves in the interesting areas where they show the high level of competence.