Atrophic gingivit – a chronic disease of an oral cavity which is characterized by reduction of volume of the desnevy fabric surrounding teeth. At an atrophic gingivit inflammation signs most often are absent, but there is a gradual stripping of necks of teeth and development of painful sensitivity to changes of temperature. Atrophic is diagnosed gingivit on the basis of the anamnesis and assessment of a condition of gums during dental survey. Treatment of an atrophic gingivit includes elimination of the factors injuring and irritating marginal , medicamentous therapy, massage of gums and physiotherapeutic procedures. In the started cases surgery – a gingivoplastika is performed.
Atrophic gingivit – a chronic form of a gingivit at which owing to dystrophic changes of epitelialny fabric there is a reduction of total amount of a gum, disappearance of interdental nipples, and also an exposure of necks and fangs. At the same time signs of an inflammation are absent, or are expressed poorly. An atrophic gingivit men are ill more often 60 years are more senior, it occurs at women less often. Owing to incorrect orthodontic treatment or anomalies of an oral cavity atrophic gingivit also can develop at children.
The stomatology considers an atrophic form of a chronic gingivit as the first symptom of the beginning periodontosis – not inflammatory system defeat of the fabrics surrounding teeth. Progressing of an atrophic gingivit threatens with development of a periodontal disease – the inflammatory disease of fabrics around teeth leading to destruction of zubodesnevy connection, shaking and loss of teeth. Therefore in order to avoid serious consequences it is necessary to begin treatment as soon as possible.
Reasons and classification of an atrophic gingivit
Atrophic gingivit is the last stage of a chronic gingivit and is very often connected with non-compliance with rules of hygiene of an oral cavity. The main reasons for an atrophic gingivit consider metabolic disorders, easing of immunity owing to various diseases (diabetes, tuberculosis, stomach ulcer, gastritis, hepatitis, etc.), and also smoking. Besides, the hormonal changes happening in an organism of teenagers, pregnant women and elderly people can serve as starting factors.
Atrophic gingivit the wrong orthodontic therapy, injuries of desnevy fabric owing to defects of prosthetics, deformation of gums and congenital anomalies can cause, for example, powerful desnevy sheaves or the wrong attachment of a bridle.
Distinguish two forms of an atrophic gingivit:
- limited – necks and roots in 1–2 teeth become bare (generally – cutters, canines and premolyar);
- generalized – desnevy the edge gradually loses the volume, desnevy nipples disappear, and wide interdental intervals are formed.
Symptoms of an atrophic gingivit
At development of an atrophic gingivit the mucous membrane of a gum quite often gains light pink color; bleeding and inflammatory process most often are absent at all or are expressed slightly. Often a marginal part of a gum loses volume, and interdental nipples keep the form that leads to formation of V-shaped atrophied sites. Further desnevy the edge is condensed, hypertrophied fabric in the form of the expressed roller at the expense of what the gum looks thicker is formed though actually it atrophies.
Eventually there is a reduction of total amount of desnevy fabric. Owing to an exposure of necks of teeth pathological sensitivity to changes of temperature and other irritants appears. Progressing of an atrophic gingivit leads to the fact that desnevy nipples completely disappear. On their place there are considerable interdental intervals in which food gets stuck, pathogenic microorganisms collect and breed that aggravates pathology even more.
Owing to the slow, but constantly progressing atrophy of fabrics of a regional parodont there is a gradual exposure of fangs. Further atrophic gingivit leads to considerable loss of volume of desnevy fabric and can become the reason of serious consequences: development of a periodontal disease and loss of healthy teeth.
Diagnostics of an atrophic gingivit
Atrophic gingivit is diagnosed by the stomatologist or parodontology on the basis of data of the anamnesis and assessment of a condition of an oral cavity at visual and tool inspection. During visual survey the doctor estimates dental health, interdental nipples and desnevy edge, possible anomalies of gums, and also features of a bite, the number of deposits on teeth and a condition of artificial limbs at their existence. Tool inspection by means of the probe allows to reveal bleeding, integrity of zubodesnevy connections, lack of desnevy pockets and degree of mobility of teeth. On the basis of data of survey the parodontogramma is formed.
To estimate a condition of a bone tissue, the dental X-ray analysis is carried out. For more exact diagnostics carrying out various tests, indexes and tests, and also crops from an oral cavity on microflora is possible. These researches are necessary to differentiate atrophic gingivit from diseases, similar in symptomatology, for example, of periodontosis and a periodontal disease. At an atrophic gingivit only soft desnevy fabrics are surprised, and bone structures and sheaves remain unaffected.
For purpose of the correct treatment it is necessary to establish precisely the reasons which caused atrophic gingivit therefore in case of associated diseases for diagnostics consultations of other medical experts are required: endocrinologist, phthisiatrician or gastroenterologist.
Treatment of an atrophic gingivit
At treatment of an atrophic gingivit an individual integrated approach is necessary. If pathology of gums is caused by an all-somatic disease, then it is necessary to conduct a course of its treatment and to take measures for strengthening of the general immunity. Besides, it is required to eliminate all factors injuring and irritating fabric of a parodont, to carry out professional hygiene of an oral cavity and to appoint the therapy improving to a traffic of gums. Correction of orthodontic devices and dentures is in case of need made.
In the presence of an infection use antibacterial medicines. Apply peroxide of hydrogen or other antiseptics to processing of gums. The positive effect is rendered by rinsings of a mouth broths of an acorus, St. John's Wort, propolis, a camomile and bark of an oak, however concerning application of these means it is necessary to consult surely with the doctor. To self-medicate inadmissibly, therapy of such serious disease as atrophic gingivit, has to take place under strict control of the expert.
Complex treatment of an atrophic gingivit also includes processing of necks of teeth fluorine, vibration massage of gums, auto-and a hydromassage, and also parodontologichesky applications with oil of a sea-buckthorn or a dogrose. Reception of the vitamin and mineral complexes containing A, B, C, E and P vitamins is necessary. In addition, it is aware of treatment usually use several types of physical therapy: electrophoresis, , ultrasound or phototherapy.
In case of neglect of a disease the doctor can recommend carrying out surgery – gingivoplastika at which atrophied sites of a gum are restored by rags of the next healthy fabrics.
Forecast and prevention of an atrophic gingivit
Full treatment of this pathology is impossible, but timely and correct therapy can suspend atrophic processes. Therefore it is necessary to observe measures of prevention of an atrophic gingivit and to see in due time a doctor at emergence of disturbing symptoms.
As the main preventive action serves the correct hygiene of an oral cavity. It is necessary to brush teeth in the morning and in the evening, using the pastes interfering bleeding of gums. In case of the diagnosed chronic gingivit it is important not to allow its overflowings in an atrophic stage. It is for this purpose recommended to apply the dental gels containing metronidazole. It is necessary to have surely routine inspection at the expert not less than 2 times a year and to regularly carry out sanitation of an oral cavity.
In the presence of all-somatic pathologies which can lead to an atrophic gingivit it is important to conduct in due time a course of their treatment and to strengthen the general immunity. It is necessary to refuse smoking and to eat properly: to use more fruit and vegetables, to limit sweet products.