Disturbing frustration of the personality
Disturbing frustration of the personality – frustration of the personality of which are characteristic feeling of inferiority, social isolation, hypersensibility to estimation from other people, avoiding of social contacts for fear to be rejected, humiliated or mocked. Usually develops at youthful age. It is shown in a set of forms with a little differing symptomatology. It is often combined with other frustration of a disturbing range. It is diagnosed on the basis of a conversation and results of special tests. Treatment – psychotherapy, medicinal therapy.
Disturbing frustration of the personality
The disturbing frustration of the personality (avoiding or the evading frustration of the personality) – the resistant personal features which are shown in feeling of inferiority, hypersensibility to criticism and avoiding of social contacts. Develops at youthful age, remains throughout all life. Information on prevalence is absent. Disturbing frustration of the personality was relative recently is allocated in separate category though sketchy descriptions of this pathology occur in descriptions of the mental disorders made at the beginning of the XX century. The high komorbidnost with a social phobia, other disturbing and fobichesky frustration is noted. Treatment of disturbing frustration of the personality is performed by experts in the field of psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychotherapy.
Reasons of development of disturbing frustration of the personality
The reasons of development of this frustration are not found out yet. Experts in the field of mental health believe that disturbing frustration of the personality is the multifactorial disease resulting from hereditary predisposition, features of character and temperament and style of education. Researchers note that patients with disturbing frustration of the personality in the childhood hard transfer hit to unusual circumstances, suffer from the increased fearfulness, shyness and isolation. At the same time, shyness and fearfulness of the child at all not necessarily are a harbinger of development of disturbing frustration of the personality. Psychologists specify that shyness before social contacts is a normal stage of development of mentality, occurs at many children and teenagers and in process of a growing often completely disappears.
Experts also point that many patients with disturbing frustration of the personality grew in conditions of constant criticism, rejection and rejection. Usually painful experience of patients is caused by style of education and features of the atmosphere in a parental family. Distinctive feature of problem education is closer, than usually, painfully strong merge between parents and the child. The child who is in merge to the rejecting significant adult appears in very difficult situation and constantly suffers from the expressed ambivalence of aspirations.
On the one hand, he constantly is eager to fill shortage of love and emotional proximity. With another – feels fear of rejection of the identity and feels need to keep at from parents. Long stay in such conditions involves formation of characteristic thinking and behavior – the high need for close relations at an external distancing and constant fear of condemnation.
Symptoms of disturbing frustration of the personality
At children's age the patients suffering from this frustration show fearfulness and shyness. They are afraid to meet new people, to answer at a board, to be the focus of attention, to appear in unusual situations, etc. With age the listed features become more expressed. At teenage and youthful age patients with disturbing frustration of the personality have no close friends, communicate with peers a little, diligently avoid participation in public actions.
They prefer to spend time alone, behind viewing of movies, reading books and imagination. All circle of contacts of patients consists of close relatives. Patients with disturbing frustration of the personality keep at from people around, however constant preservation of a distance is caused not by lack of need for close contacts, but expectation of criticism, neglect and rejection. Patients are extremely sensitive to any negative signals, worry because of insignificant critical remarks and sometimes treat neutral words of people around as a sign of negative attitude.
At the same time patients with disturbing frustration of the personality feel the high need for close relations, but can satisfy it only in very careful, sparing atmosphere – in the conditions of unconditional acceptance, approval and encouragement. The slightest deviation from this scenario is perceived by patients as the evidence of the humiliating rejection. Noncritical perception of people around in real life meets very seldom therefore patients with disturbing frustration of the personality often remain lonely. If they nevertheless manage to establish a family, they limit a circle of contacts to the partner. Leaving or the death of the partner become the reason of full loneliness and cause a decompensation.
Problems at establishment of contacts with people around are aggravated because of awkwardness and social inexperience of the patients suffering from disturbing frustration of the personality. High level of internal tension does not allow patients to relax during communication. They lose spontaneity, can look strange, clumsy, too closed and unclear, to fawn upon other people or to defiantly avoid people around. Sometimes it provokes negative reactions from society. Patients read out these reactions, as usual attach them too much significance and even stronger separate.
The pit of patients with disturbing frustration of the personality, as a rule, does not develop because of the expressed avoiding behavior. It is difficult for them to come into professional contacts, to act on public, to direct and make crucial decisions. Usually they choose a silent, imperceptible position, remaining "playing a supporting role". Hard change the place of work. Difficult meet with employees. The intense relations and the conflicts in collective can provoke a decompensation.
Because of tension and expectation of rejection it is heavy to the patients suffering from disturbing frustration of the personality to trust even in the psychologist or the psychotherapist. Telling about the problems, they constantly worry whether they were pleasant to the expert, whether he approves their behavior. If it seems to patients that the psychologist approves them insufficiently and accepts, they are closed and can interrupt therapy. On consultations patients speak not about desire of acceptance more often, and about fear of gossips, sneers and gossip. Disturbing frustration of the personality is often combined with a social phobia, other fobichesky and disturbing frustration. Some patients try to reduce emotional pressure, accepting alcohol that can lead to development of alcoholism.
Diagnostics of disturbing frustration of the personality
The diagnosis is established on the basis of a conversation with the patient and results of psychological testing. As diagnostic criteria of disturbing frustration of the personality experts consider strong feeling of tension; confidence in the social awkwardness and insufficient value in comparison with other people; excessive concern about rejection or criticism; unwillingness to enter the relations without sufficient confidence in sympathy and acceptance of the partner; the restrictions in professional activity and social life caused by desire to minimize active contacts with other people for fear of rejection, criticism and disapproval. Diagnosis requires at least four criteria from this list.
Disturbing frustration of the personality is differentiated with sociophobia, a schizoid psychopathia, dependent frustration of the personality, a hysterical psychopathia and boundary frustration of the personality. At sociophobia the fear of certain social situations, but not fear of rejection by other people is observed. At schizoid frustration of the personality the patient aspires to loneliness, is afraid to approach other people and to lose the personality in merge. At dependent frustration of the personality the fear of parting, but not fear of criticism prevails. At hysterical and boundary frustration obvious manipulative tendencies are found, patients violently react to rejection, but do not retire into oneself.
Treatment of disturbing frustration of the personality
Treatment is usually performed in out-patient conditions, using specially developed program including elements of cognitive and behavioural therapy and psychoanalytic therapy. Using psychoanalytic methods, the psychologist helps the patient to realize existence and the reasons of the internal conflicts with disturbing frustration of the personality, to find a new view on own biography. Using cognitive and behavioural technicians, the patient with assistance of the expert reveals distortions of expectations, forms more adaptive patterns of thinking and interpretation of the events, learns to communicate with other people freely.
Individual therapy of disturbing frustration of the personality is usually combined with group occupations. Participation in group work gives to the patient the chance to improve communicative skills and to learn to contact more surely to people around in brought closer to reality, but more careful atmosphere of psychotherapeutic group. At the final stage of therapy the patient suffering from disturbing frustration of the personality learns to use the received skills in usual life. The psychologist gives it support in a case of failures, focuses attention on progress, helps to understand difficult situations etc.
Therapy comes to the end when the new behavior turns into long term habit. The forecast at disturbing frustration of the personality favorable. This frustration gives in to correction better than other psikhopatiya. Most of patients significantly increase the level of self-confidence, successfully study new ways of communication and in the subsequent apply them in real life. The forecast worsens if patients with disturbing frustration of the personality have komorbidny mental disorders, especially – heavy and is long current.