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Curvature of shins

The curvature of shins is characterized by violation of the correct contour of legs as a result "About" - or the "X"-shaped deformation of bones or esthetically adverse distribution of soft tissues of shin. The curvature of shins is not only cosmetic defect; existence of this pathology can cause uneven distribution of load of femoral and knee joints that is fraught with development of osteoarthrosis or a gonartroz. The curvature of shins quite often leads to development of flat-footedness.

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Curvature of shins

The curvature of shins is characterized by violation of the correct contour of legs as a result "About" - or the "X"-shaped deformation of bones or esthetically adverse distribution of soft tissues of shin. The curvature of shins is not only cosmetic defect; existence of this pathology can cause uneven distribution of load of femoral and knee joints that is fraught with development of osteoarthrosis or a gonartroz. The curvature of shins quite often leads to development of flat-footedness.

More than 20% of women state dissatisfaction with the shape of legs, the problem of a curvature of shins concerns also men not less. It is considered that in the presence of the correct shape of legs, the line lowered from a head of a coxofemoral joint will pass through the middle of a patella, and then between 1 and 2 fingers. The deviation of legs concerning this line leads to violation of normal biomechanics of extremities. The ideal shape of shins is characterized by existence of 3 internal spindle-shaped contours limited to a crotch, knee joints and soft fabrics of the top third of a shin, and also anklebones.

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Classification of a curvature of shins

Features of curvature of shins are indications to carrying out this or that type of correction. The curvature of shins can be true and false.

True curvature of shins is the feature of a structure of the lower extremities connected with deformation of a tibial bone. Distinguish two options of a true curvature of shins: valgusny (the "X"-shaped) and varusny ("About"-shaped).

Close legs at valgusny curvature remind the letter "X". The insignificant deviation of shins outside is norm and makes 5 - 7 ° at men and to 10 ° at women. Patients with a valgusny curvature of shins have an external corner of curvature more, at close knee joints the considerable divergence of anklebones is defined.

At varusny curvature of a shin form a contour of a letter "O". Externally it is shown by defect of an internal contour from close anklebones to a crotch. As option of a varusny curvature of shins serve a rekurvirovanny shin with a corner open kpered and top of the curvature directed back and a kifozirovanny shin with a corner open kzad, and top forward.

The true curvature of shins considerably influences function of walking and a condition of feet. The Varusny curvature of shins conducts to the return subcollar of foot (valgusny) and gradual development of valgusny deformation of foot and secondary flat-footedness. The Valgusny curvature of shins even more promotes development of flat-footedness.

The false curvature of shins is caused by feature of distribution of soft fabrics which make an impression of curvature of legs in the absence of bone deformation. False curvature is shown by a nesmykaniye of soft fabrics in shins. Such defect is only esthetic and is eliminated by means of trainings of muscles of a shin, in hard cases – by implantation of soft artificial limbs.

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Reasons of a curvature of shins

The curvature of shins can be congenital deformation or be formed at children's age as a result of severe forms of rickets, inflammatory diseases of bones, metabolic disorders. Development of congenital curvature of shins is promoted by a hereditary background, prematurity and a hypoxia of a fruit, a disease of the pregnant woman. The diseases influencing on mineral and other types of a metabolism, can aggravate the available congenital deformations of bone, cartilaginous and muscular fabrics of the musculoskeletal device, increasing degree of a curvature of shins. Therefore at early age control of the children's orthopedist of development of the musculoskeletal device is extremely necessary for the child.

At teenage age the curvature of shins can be caused by deficiency of calcium and vitamin D in food, insufficient stay in the fresh air and the sun, the inadequate loads of feet leading to a curvature of a shape of bones of a shin.

At adult patients as the most frequent reason of curvature of shins serve injuries, pathological processes in joints tibial or a femur.

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Correction of a curvature of shins

Correction of curvature of shins or contours of gastrocnemius muscles exclusively physical exercises often is almost impossible.

Planimetric plasticity of shins is carried out to patients with an underdevelopment, deformations or asymmetry of muscles of shins. Quite often planimetric plasticity of shins is carried out to body builders for giving of the expressed relief to shin contours.

For the purpose of correction of a false curvature of shins implantation of artificial limbs of gastrocnemius muscles is successfully carried out. Modern silicone implants of a shin possess high degree of elasticity and resistance to damages, however after plasticity of shins there are restrictions in sports occupations. Correction of shins by means of silicone implants yields excellent esthetic result - thin shins get volume, and bent - the correct contour.

In case of impossibility of correction of curvature of shins by means of planimetric plasticity or implantation the issue of performance of orthopedic operation is resolved.

Expeditious treatment of a curvature of shins includes a corrective osteotomiya – a section of a bone and kompressionno - a distraktsionny osteosynthesis across Ilizarov, besides allowing to increase growth and to eliminate a disproportion of extremities. In the presence of a valgusny curvature of a shin – the variziruyushchy osteotomiya is carried out, at a varusny curvature – a valgiziruyushchy osteotomiya.

During an osteotomiya the wedge-shaped resection of the site of a bone is made, then the bone is compared and fixed by means of clips or screws. At a varusny or Au-shaped curvature of a shin the osteotomiya is made, and the wedge from a tibial bone is cut; in case of valgusny or H-shaped deformation of a shin - respectively from a femur. Osteotomiya is quite often supplemented with carrying out a reconstructive hondroplastika for the purpose of increase in stability of a knee joint.

Performance of an osteotomiya comes to an end with imposing of a stable and functional osteosynthesis across Ilizarov. The patient carries the device of 4-8 months, and sometimes longer, depending on degree of a curvature of a shin and need of lengthening of an extremity.

Reconstructive shin operations have to be carried out after completion of growth of a bone tissue and all organism, that is after 18 years when there is the last jump of growth. It will allow to carry out single correction of a curvature of shins with long-term and stable result.

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Curvature of shins - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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