Large ears – increase in the sizes of separate parts or all auricle. Large ears lead to violation of esthetic face proportions; are often combined with a lopoukhost, asymmetry, deformation of an external ear; serve as the reason of isolation and complex, especially in teenage age. Large ears usually do not break acoustical function in any way, and represent exclusively cosmetic shortcoming. Reduction of the sizes and correction of a shape of auricles is carried out by means and methods of plastic surgery and its specialized direction – otoplastik.
So far as concerns large ears, first of all, increase in the size of a visible part of an external ear – an auricle is meant. Increase in an auricle is known in medicine under the name a makrotiya.
The auricle consists from funneled, irregular shape of the elastichesky cartilage covered with skin. Only the lower part of an auricle – a lobe of an ear is deprived of cartilaginous tissue. The sizes of an auricle of the person as, however, and all other parts of a body, can be various. As the normal sizes of an auricle are considered: the greatest length of an ear men have 50-82 mm and women have 50-77 mm; the largest cross size respectively – 32-52 mm and 28-45 mm. The difference in sizes of the right and left ear at one person is quite often observed, at the same time usually right auricle is more than left. Perhaps, the most important characteristic of large ears is their disproportion with other parts of the face and bodies. There is a judgment that the ideal length of an ear equals to nose length, however this formula is very primitive and applicable not for all cases.
The big sizes of an external ear can really be seeming. At smoothed folds of an auricle or its flattening an impression of a big ear is made that is not a true makrotiya. According to the aforesaid allocate several types of a bolsheukhost. The ear which is evenly increased in all sizes keeping at the same time the correct form carries the name of a huge ear. Increase can occupy certain sites of an ear: its edge or funnel of an auricle; at the same time the auricle considerably lags behind a skull wall. At some forms of large ears their impressive sizes are combined with different deformations of an auricle. Only the ear lobe increased in length in a cross size or in all directions evenly can differ in the big sizes. Big lobes of ears usually flabby, however can be also usual density.
Physiological functions of an external ear
As ears are an organ of hearing, the most important function of an external ear – sound ranging: thanks to the funneled form the auricle has ability not only to catch, but also to concentrate and transform sound waves.
Other important ability of an external ear connected with catching of sounds allows to define the direction of the proceeding sound signals and carries the name of an ototopika. This function is provided by the maximum removal of auricles from each other.
Protective function of auricles consists in protection of structures of a middle and inner ear from traumatic damages, penetration of dust, cold air.
On the surface of an auricle the set of biologically active points, impact on which through system of nervous communications (the wandering, trigeminal, facial nerve, sympathetic nerve cervical ganglions) exerts impact on certain centers of a brain is located and promotes simplification of many illnesses that is successfully used for carrying out acupuncture (acupuncture).
In ensuring all listed functions large ears are rather an advantage, than a shortcoming.
However the external ear bears on itself and cosmetic loading. And here large ears can hardly be a subject of pride of their owner. Though in some African tribes large ears were considered as beauty standard, and lobes of an ear were specially delayed to the improbable sizes.
Ears of irregular shape or the size bring especially a lot of disappointment at teenage age because of sneers of peers. Subsequently it can lead to formation of isolation and complex. If women can hide non-standard or large ears under a long hairstyle, then men, in the majority of such opportunity are deprived.
If the size and a shape of ears become a source of constant experiences and discontent with, as an exit carrying out an otoplastika can serve in such situation.
Methods of correction of the size and shape of ears
Otoplastika are called plastic surgeries on correction of a form or the size of auricles. By means of an otoplastika such esthetic problems as which are excessively bulged, the asymmetric, deformed, large ears are fixed. By means of a reconstructive otoplastika perhaps even creation of a lobe of an ear or all auricle at their absence as a result of a trauma or congenital defect.
The lowermost age threshold of carrying out an otoplastika – 6 years. As indications to carrying out plasticity of ears in children's age serves existence of rough anomalies of development or deformations of auricles. Existence of ears, big by the size, in this age cannot be the indication to operation. Carrying out an esthetic otoplastika is recommended not earlier than 15 years after completion of final formation of an ear. Age restrictions for adult patients when carrying out an otoplastika do not exist.
Before carrying out operation on reduction of an auricle existence of contraindications comes to light and computer modeling of a form and the size of future ear is carried out.
Otoplastika at adults is, as a rule, carried out under local anesthesia, at children the general anesthesia is more preferable. Through a section behind an auricle correction of a shape of a cartilage, its moving to the necessary situation and fixing is made by internal seams. At the big sizes of ears surpluses of skin and cartilaginous tissue are excised. As a zone of operation is the zaushny area, traces of an otoplastika remain imperceptible. Outside the operational section is taken in by cosmetic seams.
Carrying out an otoplastika can be carried out with use of a laser beam. Carrying out a laser otoplastika allows to reduce time of operational intervention, to execute all stages of operation more precisely and accurately. Indisputable advantages of a laser otoplastika are its painlessness, a beskrovnost and lack of complications. In general the otoplastika is considered technically simple operation therefore practically always proceeds without complications.
Pain after an otoplastika is minimum and well is removed analgetics. After operation within two weeks it is necessary to carry the fixing bandage, seams are removed approximately for 7-10 days. In the next two months the sports trainings and other kinds of activity capable to lead to an ear injury are not recommended. For 1-2 months regular carrying the special supporting tape is necessary.
Otoplastika quickly and reliably allows the patient to change the life to the best, to get rid of experiences and complexes concerning of irregular shape or the big sizes of ears.