Big nose – specific features of a ratio of length, width, height of an external nose at which it looks disproportionately in relation to other parts of the face. Too big nose breaks harmony of features, rivets attention and causes sneers of people around, promotes development of complexes concerning the appearance at its owner. At the same time, the large external nose more protects the person from penetration into a respiratory path of activators airborne an infection and allergens. At discontent of the individual with the sizes and a shape of a nose plasticity of a nose comes to the rescue (rhinoplasty).
Characteristics of a big nose are very individual and depend not only on its length and width, but also on harmony and steadiness with other features. If the human face is by nature allocated with small eyes, lips, thin eyebrows, then even the nose of the average anatomic sizes will seem "giant".
The shape of a nose is defined by a ratio of a number of its structural components: bases, root, back, tip; the size - length, width and height of separate parts of a nose. Infinite combinations of these sizes create variety of options of a structure of a nose.
Variability of the size and shape of a nose depend on age: over the years the form and a ratio of a nose with a facial skeleton become others, besides against the background of the general ptoz of soft facial tissues and flabbiness of skin the nose looks much more largely and more. On average growth and development of a nose continues to 18-21-year age. The form and the size of a nose are also influenced by hereditary and national characteristics. The European people have high and thin noses, Mongolian – flat and wide.
Anthropological parameters of a nose
Length of an ideal nose makes 1/3 from length of the person, width does not exceed 1/3 of its lengths, height approximately by 1,5 times surpasses its width. At a classical profile the corner of a nose makes 30 °, the nose bridge should have no too deep break.
The percentage ratio of width of a nose to its length makes, the so-called, nasal index which can vary from 60% to 110%. The nasal index is widely applied in anthropology and has the following options:
- the leptoriniya — the nasal index to 69,9% characterizes a high narrow nose;
- mezoriniya — the nasal index from 70% to 84,9% is typical for a nose average of the sizes;
- the hameriniya — the nasal index from 85% to 99,9% is observed at low wide a wide nose;
- the giperkhameriniya — the nasal index higher than 100% occurs at owners of a large, big nose.
According to this classification the leptoriniya is characteristic of the people of the European groups and Eskimos; the hameriniya occurs among the African, Australian nationalities etc. Anthropologists assume that the sizes of a nose have adaptive value for performance of the major respiratory function.
Physiological features of a big nose
The big nose quite often seriously complicates life to the owner, bringing disharmony in appearance, becoming a laughing stock at children's age and a complex source in a maturity. However the undoubted advantage of a big nose is that it is capable to protect the owner from penetration into an organism of infectious activators and allergens. The American researchers experimentally confirmed that the big nose represents the peculiar barrier interfering penetration into a nasopharynx of microorganisms, and also the pollen of plants causing allergic rhinitis (hay fever).
Owners of the big, given forward nose, inhale from air of particles of dust and bacteria 7% less, than owners of a usual or average nose. Also big nose protects an oral cavity from hit in it the microorganisms inhaled by it.
And, nevertheless, not all owners of a big nose are ready to reckon with its advantages. Especially often women resort to reduction of the sizes of a nose.
Plastic correction of a form and size of a nose
Operations on change of a form and the size of a nose carry the name of rhinoplasty. By means of plastic correction it is possible to make a wide nose narrower, long – short, i.e. to recreate the nose proportions which are in harmony with shape of the person.
The rhinoplasty which is carried out for the purpose of correction big by the sizes or a nose, disproportionate in a form, assumes reduction of its bone and cartilaginous framework. Access to a framework of a nose is made by performance of cuts on the internal surface of nostrils. During operation "excess" bone and cartilaginous fabrics, the formed defect are removed then it is closed by rapprochement of bones of a nose. If necessary a part of skin in nostrils is removed. At the isolated reduction of wings of a nose the nasal partition and bone structures of a nose are not mentioned.
If at the patient breath through a nose is complicated, change of provision of a nasal partition – a septorinoplastik is at the same time made. In case the new shape or the size of a nose enter a dissonance with other parts of the face (a chin, cheeks etc.), there is a need of change of appearance of these parts of the face that can be executed along with rhinoplasty or separately further.
Rhinoplasty on correction of a form and the sizes of a big nose is carried out by the general anesthesia and takes 1-2 hours.
During the recovery period it is necessary to protect an operation zone from a travmatization. At competently executed rhinoplasty the risk of postoperative complications is minimum.