Allergy to birds
Allergy to birds – a kind of the immunopathological process caused by supersensitivity of an organism to components of bird's feathers, scales, a dung or parasites. Symptoms depend on reactivity of an organism and ways of penetration of allergen – dacryagogue, puffiness of mucous membranes of a nose, cough, development of a small tortoiseshell, in rare instances - angioneurotic hypostasis is possible. The diagnosis is confirmed with carrying out skin , determination of level of specific immunoglobulins E in blood. Treatment is made by means of antihistamines, an allergenspetsifichesky immunotherapy, elimination of contact of the patient with allergen sources (domestic or decorative birds).
Allergy to birds
The disease concerns to group of household allergies, also enter it intolerance of house dust, wool of the animal and other allergens which are found in the dwelling of the person. The allergy to birds can arise at any age, but is registered at children statistically more often. The similar state develops at the people working in close contact with birds and products of their processing – the staff of poultry farms, productions on production of products from down and a feather. In rural areas as a cause of illness agricultural kinds of birds, in the city – decorative act more often (parrots, canaries).
Reasons of an allergy to birds
Hypersensitivity develops as a result of a sensitization of an organism and the subsequent repeated hit of a specific anti-gene on the surface of skin, mucous membranes of a conjunctiva or airways. There are following types of allergens of a bird's origin:
- Scales of skin and feathers. Proteinaceous components of bird's feathers and skin most often become the reason of development of a disease. They continuously come from animal covers to the external environment, saturating it with allergens.
- Dung components. Features of bird's digestion are that that with a dung the large number of proteinaceous connections (potential anti-genes) which at the time of defecation easily turn into an aerosol is allocated. It promotes their distribution and facilitates penetration into a human body.
- Waste products of parasites. A row endo-and ekzoparazit of birds contains substances, dangerous in respect of an allergy. Also they can strengthen allocation of scales of feathers and skin, dispersion of a dung, increasing hit speed to the external environment of the irritating substances.
The contributing factors to development of an allergy to birds are features of reactivity of an organism, genetic factors, immunity violations.
The first (anaphylactic) type of allergic reaction participates in development of an allergy to birds. At the first contact with allergen there is an organism sensitization – hypersensibility of immune system to a concrete anti-gene is formed. It corresponds to the usual immune answer. At the subsequent contacts with an anti-gene immunological reaction is perverted – instead of characteristic immunoglobulins of classes G and M lymphocytes allocate IgE. The last stimulate receptors on fabric basophiles (corpulent cages) which in the course of degranulation emit biologically active agents (a histamine, serotonin).
The emitted substances cause expansion , increase permeability of a vascular wall and promote development of hypostasis of fabrics. At the local nature of allergic reaction the expressed manifestations are found in the fabrics which were directly contacting to an anti-gene. At an allergy to birds hit of alien albumens happens through airways, also a part of the scales weighed in air can get on an eye conjunctiva. Therefore rhinitis, a nose congestion, dacryagogue and gripes in eyes develops. Anti-genes can get on skin at direct contact with birds, causing a small tortoiseshell – more often such form of a disease develops at children. In rare instances allergens from feathers, a bird's dung or parasites can cause system reactions and damage of the lower airways (alveolit).
Symptoms of an allergy to birds
Manifestations of allergic reaction are various and depend on reactivity of an organism, ways of penetration of allergen to an organism, age of the patient. Depending on an organism sensitization, from the moment of contact with birds or products of their activity (down, a dung) before development of a clinical picture of pathology can pass from several minutes to 2-4 days. Common symptoms of a disease are the nose congestion, sneezing, – displays of allergic rhinitis. There is allergic conjunctivitis which is characterized by reddening, dacryagogue, an itch a century.
At penetration of proteinaceous anti-genes into a nasopharynx there is its hypostasis and an inflammation – it is shown by feeling of irritation in a throat, dry cough, complaints to pain when swallowing. At children and persons with high reactivity of an organism the immunological state is followed by damage of the lower airways – there is allergic bronchitis or alveolit. Their symptoms are wearisome dry or with allocation of a viscous dense phlegm cough, rattles in lungs, the complicated breath. Skin displays of a disease proceed as a small tortoiseshell with development of reddening and an itch in the place of contact with allergen, emergence of blisters.
The allergy to birds is capable to proceed sharply, being characterized by rough reaction of an organism to contact with an anti-gene. Within several minutes or hours severe allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis develop, over time there is a damage of the lower airways. Temperature increase of a body, muscular pains, a general malaise are registered. At a subsharp or chronic current the disease symptoms erased – patients complain of a passing congestion of a nose, frequent exacerbations of conjunctivitis, inexplicable cough or periodic attacks of urticaria. At the continuing contact with allergen the course of pathology can last for months with slow increase of expressiveness of symptoms.
The expressed reactivity and strong intolerance of bird's anti-genes can become the reason of development of the angioneurotic hypostasis creating threat of life of the patient. At less acute reaction in case of long contact with a source of allergen emergence of the expressed immunological violations – bronchial asthma, easing of immunity, developing of a cross allergy is possible. The probability of complications in the presence of pathologies at children whose immune system is in process of formation is high. Allergic inflammations of mucous membranes (rhinitis, conjunctivitis) can be complicated by a secondary bacterial infection.
The purpose of diagnostics is confirmation of existence of immunological violation, definition of group and type of allergen, differentiation with other pathologies. Detection of an allergy to birds is based on results of a number of researches:
- Consultation of the allergist. The expert performs inspection of the patient, previously establishes the allergic nature of damage of skin, mucous membranes and respiratory organs, makes collecting the anamnesis of life of the patient, on the basis of the obtained data forms the list of anti-genes – the possible reasons of pathology. If necessary the patient goes for additional consultations to the dermatologist, the otolaryngologist, the ophthalmologist.
- Allergoproba (skarifikatsionny and application tests, prik-test, allergometrichesky titration). By means of skin tests during one procedure sensitivity of the patient to a number of anti-genes is checked. The technique is highly specific and allows to establish a cause of illness almost unmistakably.
- Determination of the IGE level to individual allergens. During the research the amount of class E immunoglobulins, specific to this allergen, in blood serum is defined. Is even more highly sensitive method of diagnosis of an allergy, than skin allergologichesky tests, and often supplements them. By means of skin testing the group of the anti-genes causing intolerance becomes clear, and the colorimetric analysis of the IgE level reveals concrete allergen from this group.
Auxiliary researches – the general blood test, microscopic studying of a phlegm (also are applied to diagnosis of pathology at productive cough). The picture of blood is characterized by the increased level of eosinophils. In a phlegm can reveal Kurshman's spirals and crystals of Sharko-Leiden. Differential diagnostics is carried out with ornithosis and other types of a household allergy (on wool, dust, mold fungi). Damage of the top airways (rhinitis, pharyngitis) is not characteristic of ornithosis, but at the same time there is an increase in a liver and spleen, to final confirmation of the diagnosis apply the PTsR method. Other types of an allergy are easily excluded by means of skin allergologichesky tests.
Treatment of an allergy to birds
The central component of treatment in allergology is restriction and elimination of contact of the patient with an allergen source. It is reached by careful damp cleaning of rooms, clarification of the dwelling from the dust containing scales of bird's feathers, skin or parts of a dung, installation of household air filters, airing of the house or apartment. If pathology is caused by intolerance of anti-genes of parasites of decorative birds (parrots, canaries), it is possible to be limited to treatment of an animal at the veterinarian. These actions have to be made in combination with medicamentous therapy:
- ASIT (Allergenspetsifichesky immunotherapy). This method of treatment demands exact definition of allergen and is appointed to persons with rather low immunological reactivity. Under control of the doctor to the patient enter the accruing dosages of the anti-gene causing an allergy, reaching decrease in sensitivity to it. Such treatment at many patients has uncertain prospects.
- Use of antibodies to IGE. A kind of an immunotherapy which is based on IgE binding by monoclonal antibodies that reduces their quantity in blood. It is used at severe forms of the allergy and bronchial asthma provoked by allergens of bird's feathers, down and skin. Medicine from this group is .
- Antihistamines. Apply the medicines blocking N-1 histamine receptors to reduction of symptoms. Use antihistamines as a part of drops for a nose, eyes and for intake in the form of syrups, tablets.
Full elimination of contacts with birds or their feathers, down, dung is quite often enough in order that disease symptoms spontaneously disappeared in 1-2 days without reception of medicines.
Forecast and prevention
The disease is characterized by rather favorable forecast for human life, but duration of symptoms depends on that, the ban on contact with an allergy source is how precisely carried out. Children at the long course of pathology can have trouble breathing – the long congestion of a nose leads to development of the so-called "adenoidny" person. Also there is a threat of violations of breath because of chronic bronchitis, an alveolit or bronchial asthma. For prevention of an allergy to birds follows before getting to itself an animal several times to pokontaktirovat with it in pet-shop or at acquaintances. Lack of negative reactions (a congestion of a nose, conjunctivitis, cough) speaks about normal sensitivity of an organism. When keeping birds it is regularly necessary to air the room, to clean cages, in due time to treat them parasitic diseases.