Black pyedra – the dermatological disease of hair of the fungal nature generally characteristic of the tropical countries with a warm and humid climate. This state is shown by emergence on head hair (more rare – a beard or moustaches) hardly noticeable small knots of black color of 1-2 millimeters in size of stony density, further – fragility of hair and an alopetion. Diagnostics of a black pyedra is made by survey of hair, microscopy of small knots, crops of scrapes on special environments for identification of the activator. To treatment apply as physical techniques (a sbrivaniye of hair), and processing of indumentum special substances, pernicious to a fungus.
Black pyedra – the antroponozny mycosis affecting a cuticle of hair of the head, beard and moustaches widespread in regions with warm climate. For the first time this state was described in 1878, further it became clear that the disease is widespread practically on all tropical belt – in the countries of South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Among the diseased of black pyedry women aged from 25 up to 40 years prevail, this pathology occurs at men and children extremely seldom. Generally the disease is transmitted from the person to the person, but existence of the activator in the soil and water of standing reservoirs gives the grounds to assume and different ways of infection. Indirectly the possibility of other ways of transfer proves also the fact of more frequent development of a black pyedra in swimmers and fishermen – some species of seaweed of fresh-water lakes contain on themselves a large number of a fungus activator. An important role in spread of a disease is played by the level of hygiene of the population and cultural features of some people. So, customs it is dense to braid hair, to rub in them vegetable oils or to carry close he promote heavier current of a black pyedra.
Reasons of a black pyedra
The activator of a black pyedra is microscopic mold Piedraia hortae fungus having ability to develop both on a surface, and in the thickness of a hair core. Correlation between probability of infection, expressiveness of symptoms of pathology and level of immunity of the person is noticed – at considerable weakening of protective forces of an organism transfer of an infection on skin and even internals is possible. However most often the activator of a black pyedra affects only hair. After infection the fungus begins to develop in a cuticle of a hair core, showing a tendency to growth on the hair course. After a while Piedraia hortae forms disputes – their densely packed groups visually are defined as small knots on core surfaces. Damage of skin at a black pyedra meets extremely seldom and is usually observed at persons with an immunodeficiency, this fungus never affects nails.
Infection of black pyedry can occur when using the general hairbrushes, he, sometimes through bed linen. Infection cases when washing hair in water from standing reservoirs, contact with hair of some animals are registered (at the same time the last act only as fungus carriers). Non-compliance with rules of personal hygiene (rare washing of the head) facilitates infection and promotes more expressed development of the activator of a black pyedra. Besides, this state develops at the weakened faces sore with diabetes, various options of an immunodeficiency, oncological diseases more often. Because of it in the presence of a black pyedra the dermatologist often recommends the general inspection for detection of the possible latent pathologies.
Symptoms of a black pyedra
It is noticed that most often the fungus affects a straight hair whereas with wavy or curly indumentum pathology occurs at persons much less often. At first after infection the black pyedra proves nothing – this disease has no subjective symptoms (an itch, irritation), and separate small knots on hairs often remain unnoticed. In process of progressing of fungal defeat of such small knots becomes more and more. Visually they are usually badly noticeable (especially at black hair color), but can be defined to the touch at a transmission of hairs between fingers. In certain cases separate "packages" a dispute can merge among themselves, forming a peculiar coupling. Small knots at a black pyedra very dense that is reflected in the name of a disease ("pyedr" – a stone), at their large number in case of combing of hair the pokhrustyvaniye, sometimes metal character can be distributed.
At the usual course of a disease the mycelium and disputes of a fungus do not get deep into a hair core therefore violations of its structure and growth do not happen. In the started cases of a black pyedra signs of the increased fragility of hair gradually accrue. If rules of personal hygiene are not followed and (especially) hair are tied by a dense bunch, adhesion of small knots from different hairs among themselves is possible. It leads to development of a characteristic symptom of a black pyedra – "the Colombian koltun". So call a bunch of the hair externally similar to a sheaf of wheat or barley which stuck together because of mycosis. In far started cases of a black pyedra there is an alopetion. The disease has chronic character and can last for many months and even years.
Diagnostics of a black pyedra
Usually definition of a black pyedra in dermatology does not represent special difficulties because of specific symptoms of a disease. However in midlatitudes often there are difficulties because of weak awareness of doctors on this pathology because of its rarity in this climate. Existence in the anamnesis of the patient of a recent trip to the tropical countries will be important diagnostic criterion of a black pyedra in that case. Less often infection occurs without departure, from other person who recently arrived from a travel. At survey of hair very dense black small knots of 1-2 millimeters in size come to light. When bending of the affected hair the crunch caused by destruction of structure of a fungus can be distributed.
In disputable cases for confirmation of the diagnosis of a black pyedra resort to microscopic and mycologic researches. By consideration of the affected hairs or scrapes from them under a microscope reveal a fungus with a wide mycelium of which rectangular artrospor are formed dense, as a rule. Crops on Saburo's circle are also applied to diagnostics of a black pyedra – in the presence on Piedraia hortae hair on nutrient medium black or gray colonies of rounded shape are formed. Differential diagnostics is made with a pediculosis and false pyedry – a contagious trikhologichesky disease of bacterial genesis.
Treatment of a black pyedra
The simplest and most effective approach to treatment of a black pyedra – full removal (sbrivaniye) of indumentum. As Piedraia hortae in most cases strikes exclusively hair cores, after such procedure the activator is eliminated, and the grown hair are healthy. However such method of treatment of a black pyedra not all patients, especially if to consider that the disease generally affects young women approve, not persons interested to have a shave bare. At refusal of removal of hair use various antifungal means – and its analogs. Effectively also washing of the head in solution of 0,1% mercury bichloride solution, comb-out of hair a dense hairbrush with the subsequent washing by shampoo or antifungal solutions. Duration of treatment of a black pyedra differs depending on extent of damage of hair, but usually makes not less than a month.
Forecast and prevention of a black pyedra
At the correct treatment or a sbrivaniye of the affected indumentum the forecast of a black pyedra favorable – patients completely recover and restore a normal type of hair. In the absence of treatment, and also in the presence of associated diseases (diabetes, an immunodeficiency, malignant tumors) development of an alopetion and fungal damage of internals is possible. For prevention of a black pyedra it is necessary to follow rules of personal hygiene (especially – at trips to the tropical countries), to avoid bathing in reservoirs with still water, not to use others hairbrushes, he, jewelry for hair. Piedraia hortae infection cases at application of local "national" means for care of hair therefore it is not necessary to get and use them are also frequent.