Boundary frustration of the personality
Boundary frustration of the personality – a mental disorder of which are characteristic impulsiveness, emotional instability, high uneasiness, the periods of irascibility, difficulty at creation of the long-term relations with other people, alternation of idealization and depreciation. Boundary frustration of the personality has steady character, arises at early age and is shown during all life. As the contributing factors serve features of the psychological constitution, violence, escape or lack of care in the childhood. The diagnosis is established on the basis of a conversation with the patient, the anamnesis of life and result of special polls. Treatment – psychotherapy, medicinal therapy.
Boundary frustration of the personality
Boundary frustration of the personality – one of kinds of frustration of the personality (outdate – psikhopatiya). It is shown by the steady features of character and behavior worsening socialization and creation of the personal relations. Statistically, this frustration comes to light approximately at 2% of the population. The combination to other mental disorders is quite often observed. At patients more often than on average on population, alcoholism and drug addiction develops. Emergence of psychotic states is possible.
Boundary frustration of the personality seriously worsens quality of life of patients. Failures in the personal sphere in combination with constant fear of loneliness, a professional and social implementation failure provoke depressions, push patients to the use of psychoactive agents and attempts of a suicide. Treatment of boundary frustration represents a difficult task, however, at adequate psychotherapy stabilization of a state and improvement of adaptation is possible. Therapy is performed by psychologists, psychotherapists and psychiatrists.
Reasons of boundary frustration of the personality
Boundary frustration – the disease resulting from action of a number of factors. There is a hereditary predisposition. Communication with a floor is noted – women suffer from boundary frustration of the personality more often than men. Features of character matter, at patients the underestimated self-assessment, the increased uneasiness, tendency to pessimistic forecasts and low resistance to stresses comes to light. Many patients in the childhood suffered from sexual, physical or emotional abuse, in early years endured bereavement or parting with the parent.
Emergence of boundary frustration of the personality is promoted by a lack of parental attention, lack of enough emotional contacts with significant adults, the ban on expression of feelings, the contradictory or overestimated requirements to the child. The American psychologist Marsha Laynen who was engaged in studying of a problem of boundary frustration of the personality and developed a technique of treatment of this pathology believes that the disease can be connected with "emotional inferiority the" of close people surrounding the patient in childhood. In all cases in response to adverse living conditions steady dezadaptivny schemes of behavior which in the subsequent influence the relations with people around and assessment of own acts are formed.
At boundary frustration of the personality hyperactivity of limbic system of a brain is noted, however, it is not established yet whether it is primary violation or arises again, as a result of a constant emotional deprivation and high level of emotional discomfort. Endogenous (change of level of neurotransmitters) and exogenous (the schemes of behavior developed since the childhood) factors cause difficulties at modulation of emotions. It is difficult for the patients suffering from boundary frustration of the personality to convey information on own emotional state in the acceptable form providing a possibility of reasonable dialogue. They react quickly, strongly and impulsively that quite often involves the conflicts and aggravates disadaptation.
Symptoms of boundary frustration of the personality
The first signs of frustration can be noticeable in the early childhood. Children are emotionally unstable, restless, often show emotional reactions, on force not corresponding to the activator which caused them. The impulsive behavior is observed. Nevertheless, these symptoms are not enough for diagnosis as at change of vital conditions and in process of a growing the behavior of the child can change. As a rule, the clinical picture of boundary frustration of the personality is formed approximately by 25 years.
A peculiar disorder of identity comes to light. An image own "I" am unstable and can strongly change depending on mood or external circumstances. Patients constantly are afraid to be left (sometimes this fear corresponds to a real situation, sometimes not). For stabilization of an image own "I" and elimination of fear patients with boundary frustration of the personality try to find "addition and reflection of" the ideal relations reproducing child parental merge.
In the relations of two adults such merge is impossible. The periods of idealization of the partner arising owing to unjustified expectations alternate with the periods of the depreciation provoked by heavy disappointment. The relations of the patient suffering from boundary frustration of the personality become intense, unstable, based on unreal requirements in relation to the partner. The situation is aggravated with impulsiveness of the patient and sharp differences of mood with tendency to the expressed concern or a dysphoria. The impulsive behavior at boundary frustration of the personality can include not only fieriness in the relations, but also an overeating, unreasonable spontaneous expenditure of money, casual sex, the use of psychoactive agents. Threats and attempts of suicide are possible.
The patient constantly feels devastated. It is difficult for it to control own emotions in communication with other people. Rough sudden quarrels, bright fits of anger or constant irascibility, frequent fights, irritability etc. are possible. In stressful situations the patients suffering from boundary frustration of the personality have paranoid ideas which, unlike the similar ideas at paranoia, have unstable, passing character. Dissociation manifestations can be observed. All listed complex of symptoms becomes an obstacle, both for creation of the personal relations, and for normal life in society.
The psychotherapist Young allocated group of the dezadaptivny schemes arising in early years and connected with emotional rejection of the significant adult. Patients with boundary frustration of the personality constantly feel fear of loss or rejection which is expressed in belief: "I will not find close and there will always be one". They put themselves in the subordinated position, considering that desires of people around are more significant, than their own. Patients do not believe in the ability to independently solve the arising problems and feel dependent on other people. They are convinced that they have no necessary strong-willed qualities, cannot control own life and operate own behavior.
Patients with boundary frustration of the personality consider themselves bad people. They think that people around from them will turn away if they learn what they actually, and believe that they deserve punishment. Patients suffer from distrustfulness and suspiciousness, do not feel trust and safety in the relations, are afraid that they will be used in own purposes. Belief "my feelings and desires are not significant for people around" is followed by fear of manifestation of emotions.
At boundary frustration of the personality patients constantly impose unreal requirements to themselves, believing that they have to control own feelings constantly. It involves suppression of experiences. Patients are discharged of the grief, offense, losses and disappointment. Experiences get to a zone unconscious, and feelings get out of hand at the most inappropriate moment, for example, at minor change of plans or non-performance of a small request.
At boundary frustration of the personality rather long periods of stability can be observed. During crises patients address psychologists and psychotherapists in hope to solve the problems, however after improvement of a state quite often give up therapy as the fear of collision with own urgent feelings and negative old experiences becomes stronger than fear not to cope with the life during this period of time. As a result to middle age the patients suffering from boundary frustration of the personality often have a difficult contact history with experts and form belief "psychologists are useless, they cannot help me".
Boundary frustration of the personality is often combined with other mental disorders, including panic frustration, generalized disturbing frustration, a depression, neurosis of persuasive states, maniac-depressive psychosis, paranoid, dependent, narcissistic, avoiding and shizotipichesky frustration of the personality. Alcoholism and drug addiction is quite often observed. The repeating attempts of a suicide and tendency to drawing self-damages are possible.
Diagnostics and treatment of boundary frustration of the personality
Diagnostics of frustration represents a difficult task for experts in the field of psychology and psychiatry. It is caused by instability and a variety of symptomatology, and also a frequent combination to other mental disorders. The diagnosis "boundary frustration of the personality" is exposed on the basis of psychological testing, a conversation with the patient and the certain signs which are shown in complaints of the patient, his interpersonal relations and process of therapy. Characteristic signs at presentation of complaints are a variety of problems, feeling of exinanition, confusion in feelings, the purposes and sexual orientation, tendency to self-destructive behavior and behavior which the patient in the subsequent considers how unproductive and inadequate.
In the interpersonal relations deficiency of steady proximity, confusion between proximity and sexuality, sharp fluctuations from idealization to depreciation comes to light. In the course of therapy expectations of special approach, frequent phone calls, excessive emotional reactions to breaks and changes of time of a meeting are observed. Many patients with boundary frustration of the personality hard transfer visual contact, touches and reduction of a physical distance. The expressed resistance to changes is characteristic.
Treatment of boundary frustration of the personality assumes discussion and reconsideration of the available problems, development of skills of control over own emotions and behavior, improvement of social skills, formation of the protective mechanisms helping to experience alarm and stresses. The most effective technique of treatment of boundary frustration of the personality is dialektiko-behavioural therapy. The plan of treatment is formed taking into account features of character, the personality and level of compensation of the specific patient and includes individual therapy and occupations in group.
According to indications appoint tranquilizers, neuroleptics and antidepressants. The forecast at boundary frustration of the personality is defined by age of the patient, level of social, professional and personal compensation, the relations in a family and readiness of the patient for long regular therapy. At the address at young age, an active spirit and internal psychological readiness to have the stresses caused by understanding and accommodation of feeling of disappointment, loss, isolation and loneliness steady compensation is possible. In other cases patients with boundary frustration of the personality quite often "wander" from one psychotherapist to another, without trying to obtain significant progress.