Bradilaliya – the violation of rate of a recheproizvodstvo which is characterized by the slowed-down implementation of the artikulyatorny act. At a bradilaliya rate of the internal and external speech, reading, the letter is slowed down; the voice becomes unmodulated, monotonous, an articulation – indistinct. At a bradilaliya the comprehensive medical, psychological and logopedic examination directed to clarification of causes of infringement of tempo of speech and the accompanying violations is required. The technique of overcoming a bradilaliya assumes medical influence (medicamentous therapy, FTL, psychotherapy), massage, logopedic occupations, a logoritmika.
Bradilaliya (bradifraziya) – excessively slow tempo of speech. In logopedics the bradilaliya and a takhilaliya belong to violations of the tempo-rhythmic party of the speech of not convulsive character, however, in the absence of due consideration to them, can pass into halts of convulsive character over time – stutter. Bradilaliya can be expressed in various degree: easy degree is usually poorly noticeable for people around, however at heavy extent of frustration communicative function of the speech is broken. At a bradilaliya not only rate of an oral and written language, but also the general motility and course of mental processes is slowed down.
In an etiology of a bradilaliya allocate biological and psychological factors. In some observations the bradilaliya has family character and is inherited from generation to generation. In other cases the bradilaliya is a consequence of perinatal defeat of TsNS (an alcoholic syndrome of a fruit, a Rhesus factor conflict, patrimonial injuries, etc.), the general astenisation, the postponed intoxications, etc.
In clinic of neurologic diseases the bradilaliya can accompany a course of disease of Parkinson and symptomatic parkinsonism, tumors of a brain, craniocereberal injuries, meningitis and encephalitis, depressions. Bradilaliya is characteristic of some mental violations, for example, mental retardation. In these cases the bradilaliya is combined with symptoms of the main disease, and also a bradikineziya (slow rate of movements), the general block.
The wrong education of the speech of the child, imitation the slowed-down speech of people around belong to the reasons of the psychological plan. As the independent violation of the speech which is not connected with the pathological reasons a bradilaliya occurs at people with flegmatichesky temperament. The slow rate of the speech similar to a bradilaliya occurs at the northern people at which it is standard of the speech.
The pathogenesis of a bradilaliya, according to most of researchers, is connected with violation of neurodynamics, pathological prevalence of the brake processes dominating over excitement processes.
At a bradilaliya the characteristic speech and nonverbal symptomatology is observed. The speech status of the patient with a bradilaliya is characterized by speed delay as external (expressional, proiznositelny), and internal (impressivny, mental, "about itself") speeches; slowness of processes of the letter and reading. When pronouncing words and phrases increase in pauses between words (interverbalny delay) and between sounds in the word (intraverbalny, intra verbal delay), extension of vowels, a speech skandirovannost is noted.
The voice at the patient with a bradilaliya loses the modulirovannost, becomes monotonous, inexpressive, fixed at the same height; sometimes at a fonation the nasal shade (rinofoniya) appears.
The sound pronunciation and syllabic structure at a bradilaliya, as a rule, are not broken: words are pronounced very slowly, but it is correct. Speech delay is shown in all types of the independent speech: monologue, dialogue, retelling, story. Also at slow speed patients read and write down words and phrases; the support on visual perception does not lead to normalization of tempo of speech.
The sluggish, inexpressive speech causes irritation and impatience of people around, interferes with communication implementation therefore patients with a bradilaliya become reserved and try not to speak at all.
Nonverbal manifestations of a bradilaliya are presented, first of all, by violations of the general and small motility, mimic movements. The general block and slackness, awkwardness, insufficient co-ordination of movements, an amimichnost of the person pays attention. At persons with a bradilaliya course of mental processes is slowed down: thinking, memory, attention, perception. Patients long join in any kind of activity, and, having concentrated on it, hardly switch to other occupation. Start implementation of the instruction only after repeated presentation of a task. Persons with a bradilaliya are inclined to jamming, aimless repetition of movements, perseveration.
At easy degree of expressiveness of a bradilaliya speech and nonverbal manifestations do not cause notable discomfort. In hard cases patients realize the defect that leads to the related psychological experiences.
Diagnostics of a bradilaliya
Persons with violations of tempo of speech, including with a bradilaliya, need comprehensive medical and psychology and pedagogical examination which is conducted by the neurologist, the logopedist, the psychologist, the psychiatrist. At inspection of the patient with a bradilaliya detailed studying of the anamnesis concerning the postponed diseases and injuries of a brain is necessary; presence of violations of tempo of speech at close relatives. In some cases clarification of an organic basis of a bradilaliya requires carrying out tool researches: EEG, REG, MRT of a brain, PET of a brain, lyumbalny puncture, etc.
Diagnostics of oral speech at a bradilaliya includes assessment of a structure of bodies of an articulation and a condition of speech motility, the expressional speech (a sound pronunciation, syllabic structure of the word, the tempo-rhythmic party of the speech, features of a voice etc.). Diagnostics of a written language assumes performance of tasks for writing off of the text and the independent letter from dictation, reading syllables, phrases, texts. Along with diagnostic inspection of the speech, at a bradilaliya studying of a condition of the general, manual and mimic motility, touch functions, intellectual development is carried out.
At statement of the logopedic conclusion it is important to differentiate a bradilaliya from a dizartriya and stutter.
Correction of a bradilaliya
Special correctional and pedagogical work on overcoming a bradilaliya is carried out against the background of the medical influence directed to normalization of activity of nervous system. The medical complex can include courses of pharmacotherapy, special physiotherapy exercises, massage, a balneoterapiya, physiotherapeutic treatment. For the purpose of stimulation of speech activity at patients with a bradilaliya the psychotherapy, autogenic trainings is carried out.
As the purpose of correctional and pedagogical influence at a bradilaliya serves elaboration of bystry and accurate speech reactions, development of the prosodic party of the speech. Logopedic classes are given in correction of a bradilaliya on a little accelerated speech which rate the logopedist sets and supports by means of conducting, an otkhlopyvaniye. Complication of speech material (pronouncing syllables, words, phrases, poems, performances, tongue twisters, reading on roles) happens gradually.
For the purpose of normalization of the general and speech motility at a bradilaliya logopedic massage, logoritmichesky occupations, outdoor games with chants and elements of sports competitions, occupations manual skills, playing musical instruments, dances and singing are useful. Acceleration of tempo of speech, normalization of a prosodika manages to achieve as a result of systematic occupations for 6-12 months.
Forecast and prevention of a bradilaliya
The forecast concerning overcoming a bradilaliya is optimum at the early beginning of correctional work and psychological causes of infringement of tempo of speech. But even after development of skills of the normal speech long observation at experts, constant self-checking behind tempo of speech is necessary.
The prevention of perinatal defeats of TsNS, injuries of the head, neuroinfections, asthenic syndrome is important for prevention of a bradilaliya. It is necessary to care for normal development of the speech of the child, to surround it with the correct role models.