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Bulimia

Bulimia – a disease which cornerstone the psychological frustration which is shown in uncontrollable consumption of food, concentration on food, calories, weight is. The patient suffers from attacks of unsatiable hunger, uses slimming aids, accepts laxatives, causes in himself vomiting. Differ in Bulimiki in the underestimated self-assessment, sense of guilt, excessive self-criticism, have the distorted idea of a body weight. In a heavy stage bulimia conducts to sharp fluctuations of weight (from 5 to 10 kg up and down), to swelling of parotid gland, chronic irritation of a throat, chronic fatigue and muscle pains, loss of teeth.

Bulimia

Bulimia – a disease which cornerstone the psychological frustration which is shown in uncontrollable consumption of food, concentration on food, calories, weight is. The patient suffers from attacks of unsatiable hunger, uses slimming aids, accepts laxatives, causes in himself vomiting. Differ in Bulimiki in the underestimated self-assessment, sense of guilt, excessive self-criticism, have the distorted idea of a body weight. In a heavy stage bulimia conducts to sharp fluctuations of weight (from 5 to 10 kg up and down), to swelling of parotid gland, chronic irritation of a throat, chronic fatigue and muscle pains, loss of teeth.

The term "bulimia" comes from the Greek roots "bovus" (bull) and "limos" (hunger). Literally – "bull hunger". Still this disease is called a kinoreksiya. Bulimia is characterized by pathologically strengthened feeling of hunger (happens, is followed by weakness and belly-ache), which is followed by lack of feeling of saturation at meal (a polyphagia - a gluttony). Bulimia is a consequence of organic or functional disorders of the central nervous system (gipotalamo-hypophysial violations, epilepsy, a tumor and a craniocereberal trauma), or mental diseases (schizophrenia, a psychopathia, neurosis of persuasive states). Also bulimia can develop as a result of the increased content of insulin in blood.

As food frustration bulimia began to be considered only in the twentieth century. In recent years incidence of bulimia, in most cases among women, continues to grow actively. Assume that incidence of this frustration has social and ethnic roots. Bulimia – one of forms of an addiction (obsession) concerning food. Other extreme form of persuasive states, connected with food, anorexia is.

Most often the bulimia which is not connected with organic violations, having psychological character arises in case the use of food becomes a factor of correction of an emotional state for the person. At the same time subconsciously the patient tries by means of change of consciousness by means of an overeating to leave from objective reality in subjectively estimated, unpleasant for it, reality. During flash of negative emotions (anger, rage, irritation, fear, uncertainty, etc.) the person food, as by the way to receive positive emotions, "to jam" troubles, to force out bad emotions in subconsciousness. As physiologically meal is really connected with receiving positive flavoring feelings, and also with production of endorphins (happiness hormones), there is a situational fixing: ate – derived pleasure. The person even more often resorts to this way of leaving from problems, further he tries to prolong pleasant feelings, increasing time of meal and quantity of the used food. Over time the person loses flavoring feelings during food and concentrates on its volume, fullness of a stomach. Physiologically blood supply concentrates on digestive organs, and nervous activity worsens, psychologically interests and attention are displaced towards food needs.

Such image of psychological leaving from real problems is dangerously attractive by the simplicity and availability. It is possible to eat tasty always, regardless of personal qualities, appearance, the standard of living – the food is available to all. For the persons inclined to research of easy ways of the decision psychological problems, dependence on food becomes the natural choice. Bulimia – psychophysical dependence as has not only the psychological background, but also contains a biological instinct of a satisfying of hunger in a basis.

Biological dependence develops when owing to a regular overeating the thin mechanism of regulation of appetite is broken. Regulation of feeling of hunger ceases to be based on biological factors (content of carbohydrates in blood, fullness of a stomach) and becomes subjective. Hunger appears not when food, and at times right after meal is necessary for the person. Thus, if having bulimia originally ate when did not feel hungry, then with the course of a disease he begins to have invincible desire is constantly – there is a biological dependence on food.

Classification of bulimia

Distinguish:

  • primary bulimia, uncontrollable desire to eat food, constant hunger;.
  • bulimia, as a result of anorexia – anorexics can have attacks of an uncontrollable overeating with the subsequent sense of guilt and calling of vomiting, and also other attempts of clarification.

Besides, bulimia can proceed in two ways:

  • patients after attacks of a gluttony apply clarification methods – vomiting, laxative, enemas;
  • patients are not engaged in clarification of a stomach from the used food, and try to control the weight diets from which regularly break in a gluttony then only aggravate conditions of restriction of food.

Bulimia reasons

The reasons of bulimia share on physiological and psychological.

The physiological reasons are connected with organic damages of the food center of a cerebral cortex, exchange violations (an insulinrezistentnost, a metabolic syndrome), hormonal frustration (gipotalamo-hypophysial insufficiency). In most cases in clinical practice it is necessary to face the bulimia having the psychological reasons.

Experts noted that more often bulimia develops at the persons belonging to wealthy families with tendency to pretentiousness and ambition of family installations. In such family at children the inferiority complex, fear not to equal hopes, to bring, dishonor a family often develops. The people who originally have bulimia look usually, but have tendency to increased requirements to themselves, loneliness, depressions. Over time their life begins to concentrate around food, society fades into the background and bulemik become reserved even more, avoiding communication.

If very just to reveal anorexia at objectively exhausted persons, then bulemik often long enough keep normal weight or are inclined to its moderate increase. Bulimia with requirement of the subsequent disposal from eaten by means of vomiting often does not cause excess increase in caloric content of food (though nearly a half of the eaten food is in time it will be acquired) and the sick person practically what it is not allocated with. Bulemiki are inclined to keep the mania in secret, only very close people can be devoted in it.

Most often nervous bulimia develops at young women (since 13 years). The peaks of expressiveness of symptomatology it is the share of age groups of 15-16 years, 22-25 years and about 27-28 years. Besides, easy forms of a disease at citizens of both sexes even more often come to light. Quite often bulimia can turn out to be consequence of long observance of a diet. The person who is long limiting himself in tasty favourite food breaks and has a ball.

Among bulemik and their relatives often there is an opinion that problems of an overeating are problems of a lack of strong-willed qualities that the patient just needs to refuse by effort of will food and to adhere to a high security of food. However it not so.

Bulimia is similar to drug addiction, only the food acts as drug. Independently the patient cannot escape from a vicious circle, over time it loses sense of fulness and it should raise a dose – to increase quantity of food, meals become even more often, reaches that the patient constantly has a bite something.

Having bulimia most often give preference to sweet and farinaceous food. First, this food causes most of all pleasure from the use and promotes bigger production of endorphins, secondly, it a kaloriyna also promotes substantial increase of level of sugar in blood that somehow sates a bulemik.

However the patient often realizes that he eats too much, often feels guilty for the gluttony. And negative emotions cause new attacks of hunger – the vicious circle becomes isolated. After a gluttony attack the majority having bulimia has a desire to get rid from absorbed not to gain excess weight. It is the simplest to cause vomiting, also resort to the use of laxatives, do enemas. As a rule, there are attempts to regulate weight by means of diets, restrictions in food.

As a result bulimia takes the cyclic form: an overeating, self-cleaning by means of vomiting, laxative and enemas then the period of a strict diet and new failure follows. As a rule, very few people from having bulimia represent how there is a digestion, and do not know that vomiting after food does not lead to full return of the consumed food, nearly a half eaten remains in an organism and goes to intestines, and laxative leads to liquid loss, but not to decrease in comprehensibility of calories.

Moreover, regular cleaning procedures are not safe, lead to violation of water-salt balance, irritation of mucous membranes of a gullet, throat. The people who are regularly practicing enemas risk to earn proktologichesky frustration. Severe dehydration can will end with death. Nervous bulimia demands an integrated approach – patients need not only treatment at the gastroenterologist, but also the qualified psychotherapeutic help. Without correction of the mental problems which led to a disease, treatment is impossible.

Bulimia symptoms

Behavioural signs:

  • the use of a large number of food, bad chewing, swallowing by pieces, haste in food;
  • after meal can will go to a toilet to cause vomiting;
  • secluded life, reserve, signs of a psychological illness.

Physiological signs:

Practically always patients refuse to notice at themselves symptoms of a disease, consider that they can solve food problems with the help of strong-willed efforts.

Bulimia complications

Complications from a mouth: caries, periodontosis and periodontal disease, destruction of tooth enamel. Hoarseness as a result of a regular call of vomiting, a trauma mucous the top respiratory and digestive ways;

Treatment

Treatment of bulimia always means eradication of the reason of its emergence. At organic forms of bulimia treat primary pathology, at nervous bulimia correction of psychological frustration becomes pathogenetic therapy.

At treatment of nervous bulimia both individual, and group therapy is combined. Quite often antidepressants are shown to the patients suffering from depressions. Special diets and the correcting medicinal therapy according to the available pathology are shown to patients at whom complications in the form of exchange violations and digestive frustration developed.

Usually one psychotherapeutic course for treatment is not enough, therapy long, demands regular observation from the psychotherapist for an exception of a recurrence. Now in the field of treatment of food frustration researches are constantly conducted, new techniques are developed, efficiency of medical assistance by the patient with bulimia increases.

The forecast at bulimia

The forecast at bulimia is connected with psychological state of the patient and efficiency of treatment. At inefficiency of therapy and refusal of it the forecast is adverse – complications develop, the cardiovascular system is mentioned. Death can come from heart failure, a rupture of a stomach, internal bleedings, and also oppression of mentality can push the patient on suicide.

At regular therapy and correction of psychological frustration the forecast is favorable. Are possible spontaneous treatment owing to strong positive nervous shocks.

Bulimia - treatment

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