Kofeinomaniya – the chronic abuse of caffeine which is followed by accustoming, increase in tolerance and development of dependence. The most common forms of dependence on caffeine arise at constant reception of coffee, tea and . The use of kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks is followed by feeling of cheerfulness, increase in working capacity and vital activity. Sleep disorders, mood swings, diseases of cardiovascular system and digestive tract can become consequences of a kofeinomaniya. At the constant use the psikhopatization of the personality is observed.
Kofeinomaniya – the most widespread dependence on the planet. Tea, coffee and Pepsi Cola, Coca-Cola and kofeinsoderzhashchy energy drinks are taken by vast majority of the population. At the same time according to foreign scientists about 30% of the people who are regularly taking such drinks to some extent suffer from a kofeinomaniya. 80% of the patients abusing kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks are fans of coffee and 20% - fans of tea. Dependence degree at a kofeinomaniye can significantly fluctuate – from slight psychological discomfort before the expressed physiological manifestations at the use termination.
Owing to some social and medical reasons in separate group it is necessary to allocate patients with dependence from . The usual kofeinomaniya is more often observed at successful people. Chifirista, as a rule, treat group of socially unsuccessful citizens. At adults the chifirizm often develops in places of detention. Teenagers begin to use in special schools or special technical training college. Chifirizm provokes psychopathic changes of the personality, is often combined with drug addiction or alcoholism. Including a chifirizm, experts in the field of narcology are engaged in treatment of all forms of a kofeinomaniya.
Caffeine and development of a kofeinomaniya
Caffeine is natural alkaloid, contains in tea, mint and grains of a coffee tree. It can be made in the artificial way. Coffee, tea, Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and various energy drinks are among some kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks. One cup of coffee contains 90-150 mg of caffeine, in a cup of tea – 45-75 mg, in a cup of Pepsi Cola or Coca-Cola – 30-50 mg. Caffeine belongs to "soft stimulators", exerts the activating impact on mental activity.
The effect of reception of kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks can strongly differ and is defined by type of nervous system of the patient, a condition of its organism, frequency of the use and other individual factors. Change of physical and psychological state after reception of caffeine is caused by its ability to block adenosine receptors in a brain, heart, vessels and bronchial tubes. After reception of 500-100 mg of caffeine slackness, drowsiness, fatigue and block disappears, there is a cheerfulness and feeling of inflow of forces.
At initial stages of a kofeinomaniya some increase in speed and improvement of quality of motor and verbal actions is noted. Along with it, caffeine stimulates a mocheotdeleniye, secretion of gastric juice and a gastric vermicular movement. After reception of drink heartbeat at patients with a kofeinomaniya becomes frequent, HELL slightly raises. The feeling of activity, cheerfulness and the increased working capacity causes feeling of internal satisfaction which induces the patients suffering from a kofeinomaniya to take kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks again.
At a kofeinomaniye tolerance to caffeine increases, achievement of former effect requires reception of high doses of a psychostimulator. Along with it objective signs of improvement of thinking and motor reactions disappear. Only excitement by means of which the patient suffering from a kofeinomaniya "urges on" himself on commission of any actions remains. The use of caffeine at cardiovascular diseases can aggravate symptomatology and provoke sharp states. At patients to a kofeinomaniy thicket tachycardia attacks, stenocardia, arrhythmia, hypertensive crises etc. develop.
At a kofeinomaniye psychomotor arousing, increase in level of uneasiness, a sleep disorder, irritability, increase in sensitivity to bright light and loud sounds can be observed. Complaints to violation of activity of internals are possible: nausea, a frequent urination, twitchings of muscles, pains and unpleasant feelings in a stomach. Sometimes there is hyperaemia of the person. At patients, long time suffering from a kofeinomaniya, is noted reduction in the rate of reactions, expansion of pupils, a pricking in hands and legs. Sharp poisoning at a kofeinomaniye is followed by spasms, development of respiratory insufficiency, violations of consciousness and formation of peptic ulcers.
Every fourth person who is constantly accepting high doses of kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks at the termination of the use suffers from an abstinence syndrome. The abstinency phenomena at a kofeinomaniye develop 15-18 hours later after refusal of caffeine. At patients with a kofeinomaniya the mood worsens, there is a feeling of sadness of existence, drowsiness and the increased irritability appears. Sleep disorders, absent-mindedness, forgetfulness, difficulties are possible at concentration of attention and headaches. The abstinence syndrome at a kofeinomaniye does not demand special treatment, all manifestations disappear within 3-5 days.
Diagnostics and treatment of a kofeinomaniya
The diagnosis of a kofeinomaniya is exposed on the basis of the anamnesis (long abuse of caffeine) and existence of characteristic symptoms. Differential diagnostics of a kofeinomaniya should be carried out with neurotic and disturbing and depressive frustration. Sometimes tendency to a kofeinomaniya is considered by psychologists and psychotherapists as a sign of violation of psychological state of patients. In the presence of a kofeinomaniya and absence of mental disorders the assumption that reception of caffeine is not an independent problem, but a consequence of other disease, leads to unreasonable purpose of medicines which can cause psychological or physical dependence.
As the people suffering from a kofeinomaniya often have predisposition to development of other dependences, more difficult, the combined medicamentous and caffeine dependence which is difficult giving in to treatment can turn out to be consequence of such treatment. The kofeinomaniya differentiation with psychological violations requires careful collecting the anamnesis and complaints of the patient. Dependence of mood on time of day, but not from caffeine reception, feeling of emotional emptiness and hard experienced lack of feelings is the certificate of a depression.
At a kofeinomaniye at women it is necessary to exclude gynecologic diseases (cystous damages of ovaries and other similar states). Reception of kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks at some diseases of a reproductive system provides subjective improvement of a state therefore the use of caffeine in similar cases can be connected not with a kofeinomaniya, and with attempt to eliminate unpleasant symptoms. At suspicion on a kofeinomaniya of women direct to consultation to the gynecologist.
Special treatment of a kofeinomaniya usually is not required, the patient can independently refuse reception of kofeinsoderzhashchy drinks. Explain to the patient suffering from a kofeinomaniya that all symptoms of abstinency completely will disappear within several days. Sick with a kofeinomaniya recommend to reconsider a day regimen, to optimize physical and psychological activity not to create the situations demanding constant reception of stimulators. In hours of traditional reception of coffee or black tea it is possible to drink juice or green tea – it will help to facilitate refusal of caffeine due to preservation of habitual patterns of behavior. The people suffering from a kofeinomaniya need to use more fresh vegetables and fruit.
Chifir – very strong infusion of tea prepared on special technology by repeated heating without boiling. As a result of such temperature processing theine breaks up to simpler connections. Along with theine passes a guanine, adenine and the maximum quantities of alkaloids, including caffeine therefore this dependence can be considered within a kofeinomaniya into solution. Chifir begins to act 10-15 minutes later after reception, effects remain within several hours.
After the use of drink excitement develops, there is a feeling of vigor, there is a need for vigorous activity. The person speaks much. The drawing of movements changes, they become krupnorazmashisty and a little not coordinated. Instability when walking can be observed. Against the background of the use increase of pulse and increase HELL is noted. Nausea, vomiting, a headache and intestinal spasms are possible. After a while inflow of cheerfulness is replaced by drowsiness, irritability, apathy and deterioration in mood. At regular reception there is a dependence.
At dependence from the sharp mood swings characteristic of a kofeinomaniya are observed. The periods of activity and thirst of activity are replaced by slackness, some block and decrease in mood. Occasionally depressive frustration develop. Some patients have repeating aimless movements, they shake constantly off, scratched etc. In hard cases violations of consciousness, a spasm and the psychoses reminding an abstinence syndrome at alcoholism are observed. Duration of psychoses makes no more than 1-2 days. At the use termination there is a concern, decrease in mood, the expressed apathy and deterioration in working capacity. Patients feel exhausted.
At long abuse there are characteristic external changes, a number of somatic frustration develops. Patients look is more senior than years. Teeth and language darken. Patients suffer from nausea, vomiting, violations of a chair, headaches, sleeplessness and dizzinesses. In certain cases neuritis develops, there is a tremor of facial muscles, painful skin sensitivity increases. Sexual frustration are noted. At women disappear or there are irregular periods, men have violations of a potentiality. The frequent satellite of a chifirizm are allergic reactions.
At the patients suffering from dependence from changes of the personality as a psychopathia come to light. The rastormozhennost, affective unbalance, aggression, cynicism and the raised conflictness is characteristic. Against the background of personal deformation there can be asthenic states (adynamy) which sometimes are followed by sense of guilt, suicide thoughts and intentions. At the constant long use perhaps general exhaustion.
Treatment consists in single full cancellation of a psychostimulator against the background of medicamentous support. The reception termination can provoke falling HELL with development of faints and kollaptoidny states. To patients preventively inject the drugs exerting impact on activity of the sosudodvigatelny center (for example, ). Patients are in a hospital under observation of the narcologist before disappearance of symptoms of abstinency (usually – several days), and then go for out-patient treatment. In the subsequent it is necessary to create to patients conditions in which they would not test temptation over again to start using . Such measures are especially important during the work with the dependent teenagers who conceived a liking to in special institutions.