Cancer intoxication – the pathological state caused by widespread oncological process and disintegration of a malignant tumor. Arises at late stages of an oncological disease. It can be provoked by active anticarcinogenic therapy. It is shown by weakness, fatigue, pallor of skin, dryness mucous, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight and appetite, perspiration, a hyperthermia, bone and articulate pains, sleep disorders, mental disorders, anemia and decrease in immunity. The diagnosis is exposed on the basis of the anamnesis, clinical symptomatology, results of analyses and tool researches. Treatment is symptomatic.
Cancer intoxication – a complex of the frustration arising at oncological patients at organism poisoning with products of disintegration of a malignant tumor. Comes to light mainly at terminal stages of a disease, is considered as one of the main reasons for death of patients. Besides, cancer intoxication is often observed when carrying out chemotherapy, is a natural consequence of the active anticarcinogenic treatment causing destruction of a tumor.
Cancer intoxication can provoke violations of activity of various bodies and systems, including – a renal and liver failure, sepsis and other heavy infectious complications that causes importance of the thought-over selection of dosages and types of medicines taking into account the general condition of the patient, and also existence of these or those chronic diseases. Treatment is performed by experts in the field of oncology.
Reasons of cancer intoxication
One of distinctive features of a malignant tumor is its ability to rapid uncontrollable growth. As a rule, growth rates of the vessels providing blood supply of a new growth lag behind the growth rate of tumoral fabric. Malignant cages are rather steady against a hypoxia and can exist some time in the conditions of insufficient blood supply, however sooner or later die. Usually this process is observed at tumors of rather big size. Mass death of cages becomes the reason of disintegration of a new growth and causes cancer intoxication.
A large number of products of disintegration which provoke frustration of all types of a metabolism and violation of activity of various bodies and systems gets to an organism. Cancer intoxication becomes the reason of increase in level of urea. Crystals of urea settle in kidney tubules, causing development of a renal failure which aggravates exchange violations even more. Because of increase in amount of phosphates there is a deficiency of ions of calcium which consequence violations of work of nervous system turn out to be. Increase in level of calcium negatively influences work of heart. Patients with cancer intoxication have arrhythmias, in hard cases the termination of warm activity is possible. Increase in quantity of free radicals stimulates disintegration of erythrocytes and development of anemia.
Displays of cancer intoxication are very variable. Formation of a clinical picture is defined by weight of a condition of the patient, speed of destruction of a new growth, amount of the toxic substances getting to the main blood-groove, features of localization and the course of oncological process, scale of surgical intervention, existence and volume of blood loss (as the tumor which arose during operation and the postoperative period, and connected with disintegration), accession of inflammatory complications, a dose of a himiopreparat and other factors.
Symptoms of cancer intoxication
The most constant symptoms of cancer intoxication are the progressing weakness and causeless fatigue. Characteristic changes of appearance are observed: deficiency of body weight (in hard cases – up to a kakheksiya), a pale, earthy or yellowish shade of skin, dryness of skin and mucous membranes. Cyanosis of disteel departments of extremities is possible. At patients with dysfunction of a liver the ikterichnost a skler comes to light. Patients with cancer intoxication show complaints to the strengthened sweating. As a rule, perspiration is more expressed at night.
During the poll the doctor establishes that sharp weight reduction happened during a short period and was followed by appetite violations: disgust for food (especially – to meat products), a taste perversion etc. Besides, at cancer intoxication observes dispepsichesky frustration: nausea, vomiting and violations of a chair. Locks, ponosa or alternation of locks and ponos are possible. Long temperature increase to subfebrilny (is noted at some diseases – to febrilny) figures. There are bone and joints pains.
Patients with cancer intoxication can report about periodic migraines and attacks of dizziness. Inquiry of patients and their relatives allows to reveal changes of the mental and emotional status. Apathy, irritability and emotional lability can be observed. Cancer intoxication quite often is followed by depressive frustration. Sleep disorders are possible: sleeplessness, a superficial dream, difficulties at falling asleep, night and early awakenings. Often violations of a warm rhythm are found. At cancer intoxication there is a high probability of development of thromboses and tendency to emergence of infectious complications. In blood test symptoms of anemia are found (usually – moderate normokhromny).
Diagnosis of cancer intoxication
The diagnosis is exposed taking into account the anamnesis, complaints, the yielded objective survey and results of additional researches. The crucial role in definition of the reason of cancer intoxication is played by detection of the main pathology. At a characteristic clinical picture and lack of the established diagnosis of an oncological disease to patients with suspicion of cancer intoxication appoint comprehensive examination which includes the general blood tests and urine, biochemical blood test, blood test on onkomarker, a thorax X-ray analysis, a stsintigrafiya of bones of a skeleton, ultrasonography of an abdominal cavity, ultrasonography of a small pelvis, gynecologic survey and other researches. The plan of inspection is defined individually.
At already diagnosed oncological disease assessment of expressiveness of cancer intoxication for definition of tactics of treatment is required (scheduling of chemotherapy, making decision on surgery, selection of symptomatic medicines etc.). For assessment of weight of cancer intoxication standard indicators of blood are used: level of urea, creatinine and S-jet protein, jet answer of neutrophils, leykotsitarny index of intoxication etc. Along with the listed indicators the data on a condition of various bodies and systems of the patient with cancer intoxication received when carrying out the ECG, analyses of urine, blood tests on hormones and other researches can be required.
Treatment of cancer intoxication
Treatment is symptomatic, includes actions for a detoxication, elimination or mitigation of clinical manifestations and correction of violations of activity of various bodies and systems. Carry out an enterosorbtion, haemo sorption and application sorption. To patients write out sorbents for intake. At heavy cancer intoxication apply a hemodialysis or a plasma exchange. In the presence of open wounds in the field of disintegration of a tumor carry out bandagings with sorbents of local action.
At vomiting sick with cancer intoxication appoint antivomitives (, ), at locks – laxatives for oral administration and rectal candles (the macrogoal, medicines of Seine, bisakodit, castor oil and so forth). At anemia use iron medicines inside and parenterally, apply erythropoietin. The choice of medicines at the cancer intoxication which is followed by mental disorders depends on a look and weight of frustration. At emotional lability appoint soft sedatives, at sleep disorders – hypnotic drugs, at a depression – tranquilizers and antidepressants.
The forecast is defined by the reasons of cancer intoxication, weight of the main process, age and the general condition of the patient, existence and weight of the accompanying somatic pathology. The states arising at disintegration of large widespread tumors in the started disease stages are predictively adverse. Patients with cancer intoxication perish from bleedings, violations of activity of the bodies affected with primary tumor or hematogenic metastasises and also from exhaustion, infectious complications, a renal failure, thromboses, violations of the warm activity or polyorgan insufficiency caused by exchange frustration and weakening of an organism. At the cancer intoxication which arose in the course of chemotherapy, the forecast can be favorable. At reception of himiopreparat it is the temporary state which is a part of medical process.