Kantserofobiya – pathological fear of oncological diseases. Often develops at morbid depression, obsessivno-compulsive frustration, the panic attacks and disturbing frustration, however it can be observed also for lack of other mental violations. It is shown by constant doubts, alarm concerning a possible malignant new growth, conviction in the desperate situation which does not manage to be shaken even results of medical examination. The diagnosis is exposed on the basis of characteristic complaints and the clinical record. In the course of diagnostics examination for an exception of somatic pathology is conducted. Treatment – psychotherapy, medicinal therapy.
Kantserofobiya – irrational fear of developing of an oncological disease. Statistically, holds a leading position among nozofobiya (persuasive fears of a disease). Such high prevalence of a kantserofobiya is caused by idea of cancer, as about an incurable disease with heavy sufferings of patients in a terminal stage, the big frequency of oncological diseases, concern of society and experts, a set of publications in the press, display of the telecasts, movies and series devoted to this subject and some other factors. Treatment of a kantserofobiya is performed by experts in the field of psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
According to WHO researches, cancer enters the top ten of causes of death around the world. During life many people directly or indirectly should face this disease, and the kantserofobiya becomes reaction to the stress caused by real or fictional threat of death. The pathological fear of malignant new growths can arise after the death of the loved one from cancer, identification at the patient of precancer diseases or removal of benign tumors. A part is played by hereditary predisposition (presence of the relatives who had cancer or died of oncology). Sometimes sharp loss of weight and deterioration in appearance against the background of a chronic stress becomes a push to development of a kantserofobiya.
The contributing factors are shortage of internal reserves at mental or physical exhaustion and some mental disorders of neurotic and boundary level: morbid depression, neurosis of persuasive states, psychopathia, panic attacks, generalized disturbing frustration. Sometimes the kantserofobiya becomes a part of crazy system at schizophrenia. The probability of development of pathological fear of oncological diseases increases with age. At women the kantserofobiya quite often arises in the climacteric period.
Usually the first signs of a kantserofobiya appear against the background of some drama events (a disease of the relative or the friend, emergence of the somatic symptoms causing associations with cancer etc.). At disturbing, impressionable persons the kantserofobiya can develop after the neutral phrase of the doctor during planned survey or after the innocent remark of the friend or the acquaintance concerning appearance and the state of health of the patient.
Character and behavior of patients with a kantserofobiya change. One constantly complain of health, become whining and emotionally labile. Others, on the contrary, show aggression and excessive fault-finding in relation to relatives. The subject of symptoms, ways of treatment and prevention of cancer diseases takes all attention of the patients suffering from a kantserofobiya and pushes aside other interests on a background. They buy up popular literature of the corresponding subject, read specialized medical reference books and look for information on the Internet. Some patients with a kantserofobiya try not to contact to the people having oncological diseases, worrying that cancer "will be transmitted" at a meeting.
One patients with a kantserofobiya constantly see doctors and regularly there take place various inspections. Quite often already on the first reception they not only show a large number of various complaints, but also tell the doctor independently made "preliminary diagnosis". Others, on the contrary, try to avoid in all ways visit of medical institutions even in the presence of real serious diseases. Confidence that the first visit to the expert will confirm existence of cancer in the fourth stage is the cornerstone of their behavior, and they should live the remained time, knowing about the forthcoming death whereas uncertainty gives up hope. Actually, uncertainty only increases alarm of such patients, but their fear is so big that patients with a kantserofobiya do not find forces it to overcome.
Frankness level in communication with people around depends on features of character of patients with a kantserofobiya. Hysterical persons are often accented on cancer subject, reduce to it all talk, show the sufferings. Reserved, disturbing people, and also patients with obsessivno-compulsive frustration quite often long worry alone, without reporting to anybody about the suspicions. The family understands that something not as it should be, only on indirect signs (to change of behavior, reading the corresponding literature, emotional reactions at a mention of oncological diseases).
Any mention of cancer for several days spoils mood of patients with a kantserofobiya and causes painful thoughts: "why it happened to me?". There are an excitement, nervousness and concern or block and internal catalepsy. Confusion, jumps of thoughts and confusion of consciousness appear in hard cases. Beliefs and explanations of people around are inefficient, the patient or violently objects and takes offense, seeking to finish a conversation, or gives in to action of logical arguments, but through short time comes back to a former state again.
Because of constant alarm the tone of muscles raises, the face of the patient with a kantserofobiya becomes amimichny, masklike. The alarm influences not only the patient's body, but also his emotional and intellectual state. From the point of view of people around, patients with a kantserofobiya behave "silly" and illogically. The thinking of patients is slowed down, loses former freedom, in hard cases pseudo-dementia develops. Depressions and subdepressions, usually – with the expressed disturbing component are possible.
Eventually changes of character become more and more obvious. Irritability increases, the level of self-confidence decreases. Patients with a kantserofobiya become more passive and less sociable, meet with people more difficultly, carry out the professional duties worse, cease to care for relatives. The discontent with specific doctors or medicine "in general" is often observed. Patients complain that physicians pay them not enough attention, incorrectly read data of additional researches and results of analyses, appoint illiterate treatment, etc.
Self-treatment attempts turn out to be consequence of such views, it is frequent – with use unchecked, and sometimes and obviously dangerous methods. Patients with a kantserofobiya excessively are engaged in medical starvation, accept dietary supplements and folk remedies, try various "systems of clarification", keep to various diets. As a result some patients suffering from a kantserofobiya have real problems with health. The mistrust does not allow to ask doctors for medical care, and emergence of new somatic symptoms "urges on" a kantserofobiya even more.
Diagnostics and treatment of a kantserofobiya
Patients with suspicion on a kantserofobiya are directed to inspection – it gives the chance to exclude cancer and to reveal other diseases which could become the reason of emergence of unpleasant symptoms, and then carry out their adequate treatment. The diagnosis a kantserofobiya is exposed by results of a conversation during which the psychologist finds out when the patient had suspicions on a malignant new growth whether the psychoinjuring situations where the patient where he was examined and treated what measures he took independently what feelings he had addressed preceded it and tests. In the course of differential diagnostics exclude schizophrenia, a psychopathia and frustration of neurotic level.
Treatment of a kantserofobiya is performed by psychotherapists and clinical psychologists. Tactics of treatment depends on the revealed pathology. To patients with a kantserofobiya appoint tranquilizers, antidepressants and anksiolitik. At neurosis of persuasive states, disturbing frustration, the panic attacks and other mental disorders carry out therapy of the main disease. At a syndrome of chronic pain apply analgetics and spazmolitik. At somatic pathology of patients direct to the corresponding experts: to the therapist, cardiologist, neurologist etc.
The main method of treatment of pathological fear is the psychotherapy. In most cases long work on identification of the deep reasons of a kantserofobiya and correction of the arisen psychological violations is required. Behind fear of an oncological disease the horror before own death lies, however it is rather difficult to find the reasons of this horror as they are hidden in unconscious the patient suffering from a kantserofobiya.
Such horror often has nothing in common with the fear of death inherent in each normal person. Old psychological injuries, old irrational beliefs, children's fears which the person outgrew long ago can be its cornerstone, but cannot realize and process because of once happened replacement into unconscious. At study of problems of such level of the best effect it is possible to reach, using classical psychoanalysis, deep psychotherapy of Jung and other similar techniques. In the presence of family problems individual consultations supplement with family therapy.