Abuse katinony – dependence on a katinon (norefedrin) or a psevdometkatinon (pseudoephedrine), the psychoactive agents made in the handicraft way from anti-cold medicines. Intoxication is shown by raising of mood, activity and inflow of forces, over time euphoric effects become less expressed. Distinctive features of this drug addiction are bystry development of dependence, the progressing increase in a dose and increase of reception, early toxic encephalopathy. Damage of a brain is substantially caused by effect of toxic impurity. The forecast is adverse.
Abuse katinony – heavy dependence with a progrediyentny current. The brutal narcotization is observed, the neurologic symptomatology appears quickly and aggravated. At the time of the first address to the narcologist many patients already suffer from a heavy parkinsonopodobny syndrome. The percent of an exit to disability is high. Dependence on a katinon usually develops at teenagers and young men. The peak of prevalence fell on the 90th years of last century. After toughening of control over medicines of which make the number of katinonovy addicts was reduced.
In the nature contains in Katya – the bush growing in some countries of Asia and Africa. In these countries leaves of a kat use as a soft stimulator. When chewing leaves there is easy euphoria, feeling of relaxation, talkativeness and emotional instability. In America and Europe leaves of a kat appeared in the second half of the 20th century, however their action was so unstable and poorly expressed that psychoactive means did not interest either drug dealers, or the people inclined to the use of drugs.
For the first time it was received in the artificial way in vitro in 1978, however messages on production of this substance from Koldakt and other anti-cold medicines containing ephedrine appeared only in the 90th years of the last century. For production of a katinon used the medicines containing ephedrine and its analogs. Katinon received in the handicraft way, using permanganate of potassium and food vinegar. Contents of capsules of medicine were crushed, mixed with water, vinegar and potassium permanganate.
Simplicity of production, relative availability and low cost of ingredients attracted the young people who do not have neither communications, nor sufficient means for acquisition of expensive drugs. Frequent the search drug addiction became the reason of the beginning of the use of a katinon. The experts researching this dependence claim that they most of the patients suffering from katinonovy dependence before regular reception of a katinon tried to smell glue, to smoke hemp etc. Bystry spread of a disease caused toughening of control over distribution of efedrinsoderzhashchy medicines. Now the quantity dependent on a katinon decreased.
Development of dependence on a katinon
The effect arises practically right after an injection of a katinon. The patient feels the "blow in the head" accompanied with tachycardia and a pricking of skin. Raising of mood, inflow of forces and thirst of physical activity which are replaced by talkativeness and detached "sophistication" later becomes an incentive to repeated reception of a katinon. Euphoria lasts no more than 3 hours that allows teenagers to use , without drawing attention of parents with the unusual behavior.
At the getting out of state of intoxication there is an expressed discomfort accompanied with a headache and sharp decrease in mood. It induces patients to introduction of a new dose. Because of quickly developing heavy dependence the use of a katinon becomes constant, the quantity of injections increases from 2-3 to 6-8 times a day. Cases of 25 receptions within a day are described. Spontaneous remissions are observed extremely seldom. Patients practically do not make independent attempts to refuse the drug use.
Some researchers believe that weakness of narcotic effect of medicine becomes one of the reasons of development of heavy dependence by a paradoxical image. Lack of the expressed long "high" and discomfort at the getting out of state of intoxication stimulate patients to accept only for first "arrival" and elimination of post-narcotic effects. As a result the cyclic use quickly is replaced by regular reception. One more factor is the low social level of most of katinonovy addicts, their initial tendency to looking in the future, and to live in one afternoon.
At constant reception the toxic encephalopathy accompanied with the expressed neurologic violations very quickly develops. After an injection of a katinon these violations temporarily weaken that allows patients of a message rather normal life and to keep the disease secretly from people around. It becomes one more powerful incentive for use continuation. On the first reception to the narcologist patients quite often get already at a stage of heavy violations with obvious restriction of working capacity.
Symptoms of dependence on a katinon
Intoxication comes "on a needle". Patients feel the sudden rush of blood to the head accompanied with goosebumps, a pricking and a fever. There is tachycardia. The mood improves, thirst of vigorous activity appears. It seems to patients that their thoughts accelerate. At all patients lack of appetite and dryness in a mouth is observed. Increase in sexual activity, increase of a mocheotdeleniye and reddening of skin is often noted. Heartbeat, muscular weakness and headaches is possible. After cancellation of drug weakness, a meteorizm, a sleep disorder and appetite appears. Some patients are disturbed heartbeat, by violations of an erection, a paresteziya and a skin itch.
The main complication of katinonovy dependence is quickly progressing toxic encephalopathy. The use of narcotic substance makes the contribution to development of encephalopathy, however margantsovokisly potassium is the main reason for aggravation of neurologic violations. The first frustration arise already 2-3 months of the regular use later. On 3-4 month there are noticeable violations of the speech and gait weakening after the next dose. In 2 years of constant reception heavy motive frustration develop, most of patients become disabled people.
Are characteristic of manganese encephalopathy aggravated an incoordination of movements, a propulsiya (involuntary acceleration of walking and difficulty at a sudden stop), lack of spontaneous physical activity, impoverishment of a mimicry, an illegibility of a pronunciation and decrease in loudness of a voice. It is difficult for patient to change position of a body. Sometimes there is a trembling of fingers of hands. Because of a dizartriya and a poor mimicry patients make an impression inadequate, however in most cases neurologic frustration are the reason of the listed violations. Patients usually remain rather critical to the state, adequately react to questions etc. The intelligence is kept, the decrease which is unsharply expressed intellectual is sometimes observed.
The certificate of injection drug addiction are traces of numerous injections ("road"). In femoral and axillary veins characteristic hems ("mines") are found in some patients. It helps to differentiate katinonovy drug addiction from Parkinson's disease. Unlike opium drug addiction at katinonovy dependence there is no painful abstinence syndrome. At the termination of reception of medicine there is the general discomfort, fatigue, apathy, a depression and a loss of appetite. Neurologic frustration become more expressed.
Treatment and the forecast at katinonovy dependence
Specific antidotes for treatment of sharp katinonovy poisoning are absent. At overdose hold standard detoksikatsionny events. Carry out introduction of salt solutions and solution of glucose, carry out symptomatic therapy. The abstinence syndrome at dependence on a katinon is not followed by pronounced vegetative and somatic manifestations therefore the use of medicine is stopped in one stage.
Treatment of manganese encephalopathy is carried out with participation of the neurologist. Therapy is selected individually taking into account expressiveness of symptomatology and the general condition of the patient. For removal of manganese use thiosulphate of sodium and . Apply a levodopa, group B vitamins, vitamin P and C, means to improvement of brain blood circulation (a ksantinol , cinnarizine, ), nootropic medicines (piracetam, gamma and aminooil to - that). Patients are directed to LFK and physical therapy (Ural federal district, hydrosulphuric bathtubs). According to indications appoint tranquilizers, somnolent, sedative and anticonvulsive medicines.
The forecast at katinonovy dependence adverse. Neurologic frustration remain even after full cancellation of medicine. In the subsequent aggravation of neurologic symptomatology is possible. Permanent disability is observed, many patients become disabled people of I and II groups. The remote effects of a katinon are insufficiently studied, however researchers in the field of narcology and neurology speak about the possible progressing intellectual decrease and development of organic dementia.