Pediatrics – the independent field of medicine studying age features of development of children, children's diseases, and also questions of the organization of care of the healthy and sick child. Originally a subject of consideration of pediatrics were exclusively children's diseases of early age and their treatment. In modern understanding the pediatrics covers various aspects connected with normal development and diseases of children during various age periods (from the birth till puberty). These directions include physiology, hygiene, a diyetetika, children's diseases, their treatment and prevention.further...
Pediatrics – the independent field of medicine studying age features of development of children, children's diseases, and also questions of the organization of care of the healthy and sick child. Originally a subject of consideration of pediatrics were exclusively children's diseases of early age and their treatment. In modern understanding the pediatrics covers various aspects connected with normal development and diseases of children during various age periods (from the birth till puberty). These directions include physiology, hygiene, a diyetetika, children's diseases, their treatment and prevention.
The purpose of pediatrics is preservation or restoration (at a disease) children's health, providing opportunities for full physical, intellectual and emotional development of each child. "Chief physician" by children's diseases is the pediatrician. As well as the therapist for adults, the pediatrician is a universal children's expert who can diagnose various children's diseases and, in case of need, direct the child to consultation to doctors of the narrow directions: to the children's neurologist, children's dermatologist, children's urologist, children's gynecologist, children's allergist-immunologist, children's cardiologist, children's endocrinologist, children's gastroenterologist, children's ophthalmologist, children's otolaryngologist, children's stomatologist, etc.
In medicine of children's age several directions in parallel develop: preventive, clinical and social. The preventive direction includes development and implementation of measures for the prevention of children's diseases; clinical – direct inspection and treatment of the sick child; social – stage-by-stage rehabilitation and integration of children into society. Anatomo-fiziologichesky features of the growing organism define an originality of a course of those diseases which meet at children's age.
In pediatrics it is accepted to allocate several age periods of life of the child: the neonatality period (the first month), chest (from 1 month to 1 year), early children's (from 1 to 3 years), preschool (from 3 to 7 years), younger school (from 7 to 11 years), senior school or teenage (from 12 to 17-18 years) age. During various age periods of development of the child mainly there are these or those children's diseases.
So, in the period of a neonatality the children's diseases caused by violations of pre-natal development (asphyxia, a hemolytic disease of a fruit, pre-natal infections, congenital defects, prematurity, hereditary syndromes, etc.), by the pathological course of childbirth (a kefalogematoma, a patrimonial tumor, a clavicle fracture, etc.), and also hypersensibility of babies to a viral and kokkovy infection are shown (omfalit, , a puzyrchatka of newborns etc.).
Children's diseases of chest age are connected, first of all, with high functional load of digestive and respiratory systems. Gastrointestinal diseases (dyspepsia, dysentery, a hypotrophy, kolienterit) and respiratory organs (viral and bacterial pneumonia) often occur among children's diseases of babies. Errors in feeding and a day regimen of the baby can lead to development of a disease of exclusively children's age - rickets.
Among diseases of early children's and preschool age infections prevail: measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, diphtheria, scarlet fever, tuberculosis. It is explained by imperfection of immune system of the child, and also expansion of contacts of children with people around and peers. Also during these age periods the number of infectious and allergic children's diseases increases: bronchial asthma, rheumatism, eczema, glomerulonefrit, etc.
Younger school students face sharp infections, endocrine violations, diseases of nervous system and heart more often. At teenage age in structure of children's diseases disorders of function of endocrine glands, violations of sexual development, vascular dystonias, psychoneurosises, etc. dominate.
As the most frequent symptoms of children's diseases serve rash, increase in lymph nodes, a hyperthermia, cold, cough, vomiting, belly-aches, spasms. At emergence of these and other symptoms of a disease it is necessary to consult surely the child at the pediatrician. Each parent has to be familiar with fundamentals of pediatrics, know the main children's diseases and their manifestations to be able to estimate gravity of a condition of the kid, to define whether the indisposition poses a direct threat for life.
The pediatrics does not stand still: new methods of diagnostics and treatment of children's diseases appear and take root, the understanding of mechanisms of development of diseases in children develops and goes deep. Achievements of modern pediatrics forced to recede many once fatal children's diseases. It was promoted by creation of vaccines against a number of children's infectious diseases, development of the balanced artificial mixes, emergence of modern antibacterial medicines, improvement of quality of diagnostics and treatment of children. Nevertheless, the level of children's incidence remains high; considerably the diseases which were earlier considered only as destiny of people of mature age "rejuvenated". Cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic diseases, new growths, pathology of the musculoskeletal device even more often occur among children's diseases.
The child is not just small copy of the adult. The children's organism is in a condition of continuous development, has a number of anatomo-physiological features, physical and emotional immaturity that causes specifics of course of children's diseases. Development of children's diseases is always unpredictable: even banal cold at the child can become fatal if in time his reasons are not distinguished, the correct etiopatogenetichesky treatment, not organized observation of the expert is not picked up. At the same time, thanks to high compensatory opportunities of a children's organism, many diseases which cause chronic pathology or an invalidization in adults can be successfully cured at children.
Sources of many adult diseases of a sort from the childhood. Therefore the state of health of the adult in many respects is defined by conditions of growth and development of the little man, care about his health at the very beginning of life. Today focus in children's medicine is shifted towards prevention of diseases which includes antenatalny protection of a fruit, the prevention of patrimonial traumatism, the organization of careful care of the newborn (providing an optimum diet, dream and wakefulness, a hardening), timely vaccination of children according to a national calendar of preventive inoculations, screening program on detection of hereditary pathology, implementation of patronage and dispensary observation. Care about children's health and prevention of children's diseases – a priority component of state policy.
Specialized help in system of children's health care is given in children's policlinics and hospitals, pediatric offices of the versatile medical centers, private children's clinics. It is impossible and is inefficient to treat children's diseases by "adult" methods therefore in recent years in pediatrics the narrow children's directions are allocated: children's heart surgery, children's traumatology and orthopedics, children's neurosurgery, children's hematology and oncology, children's anesthesiology and resuscitation, etc. The most important components of success in treatment of children's diseases are professional approach, use of hi-tech methods of diagnostics and treatment, the confidential relations between the doctor, parents and the child.
Children's diseases cause natural alarm among adults and the natural aspiration of parents to learn as much as possible about the reasons of diseases and ways of their treatment. The section of children's diseases placed on pages of the Medical reference book acquaints parents with the most widespread pathology at children of different age, the reasons and symptoms of diseases, necessary medical procedures and actions for care of the child. On pages of the website "Medicine-for-you.com" you will be able to find recommendations of children's experts and the most urgent information on achievements in the field of prevention, diagnostics and treatment of children's diseases.further...