Chronic gastroenteritis – the pathology of mucous membranes of a stomach and small intestine caused by process of their inflammation. The disease is shown by dispepsichesky frustration, intensive pain in a stomach, symptoms of the general intoxication. In diagnostics major importance laboratory methods (blood test, a koprogramm, bacteriological crops a calla, identification of H. ylori etc.) have, tool researches (FEGDS, a stomach rn-metriya, an antroduodenalny manometriya, ultrasonography of abdominal organs). Treatment is based on elimination of the reasons of development of pathology, knocking over of symptoms and restoration of functions of a gastrointestinal tract.
The chronic gastroenteritis is the inflammatory disease of mucous membranes of a stomach and intestines caused by action of various factors and which is characterized by violation of functions of a gastrointestinal tract. Allocate two main forms of pathology: sharp and chronic which differ from each other in the causes, clinical manifestations and methods of therapy. Statistically, more than 50% of school students and adults suffer from a chronic gastroenteritis. Relevance of a disease is connected with continuous change of strains of microorganisms, prevalence of addictions, the wrong way of life, frequent self-treatment leading to increase in stability of microbes to medicines and weighting of processes.
Reasons of a chronic gastroenteritis
Sometimes the long course of process of an inflammation leads to the fact that the sharp form of pathology passes into chronic. But most often the chronic gastroenteritis develops as a result of action of microorganisms and various noninfectious factors.
Viruses, bacteria, parasites, protozoa are capable to cause emergence of a chronic gastroenteritis, but the leading role in development of pathology is played by Helicobacter pylori. Helikobakteriya mainly colonize a mucous membrane of a stomach, they possess the peculiar protection allowing them to be and breed in aggressive conditions. In the course of activity of a bacterium promote the increased formation of hydrochloric acid which renders irritant action on mucous a small intestine, causing change of its structure and regeneration. The chronic inflammation, besides these effects, suppresses local immunity and promotes decrease in amount of digestive juice.
Except microbes, noninfectious factors can cause a chronic gastroenteritis: wrong way of life, addictions, defective and irrational food, overeating, poisoning. Especially often the disease comes to light at the full persons abusing fried, greasy food. The negative impact on mucous a stomach accords long welcome of the medicines promoting development of a chronic gastroenteritis, for example, of antibiotics, NPVS, glucocorticosteroids.
Classification of a chronic gastroenteritis
The disease is classified by several signs. The chronic gastroenteritis is divided by the causes on infectious (caused by microorganisms), alimentary (connected with meal), allergic, toxic, radiation and not specified (it is impossible to establish a cause of illness).
Depending on the prevailing functional changes distinguish a chronic gastroenteritis with violation of membrane digestion, absorption or motility. On extent of morphological changes allocate a chronic gastroenteritis superficial, without atrophy or with an atrophy an epithelium.
Symptoms of a chronic gastroenteritis
Clinical manifestations of a chronic gastroenteritis are similar to signs of other pathological conditions of a gastrointestinal tract. The first symptom which appears at patients – the severe aching pain in a stomach arising in 1-2 hours after meal. Any movement or walking cause sharp strengthening of pain. Therefore many patients try to adopt the compelled provision.
Digestive tract dysfunction at a chronic gastroenteritis is shown by the dispepsichesky phenomena: nausea, vomiting, frequent liquid chair. Vomiting arises after each meal, a chair fetid with impurity of undigested food. Constant diarrhea and vomiting can aggravate a condition of the patient and cause dehydration (dryness of lips, integuments, etc.), and also sharp weight reduction. Very often patients complain of weight in a stomach and the increased gas generation (meteorizm). Violation of absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins is shown by change of a condition of integuments, fragility of hair and nails - all this quite often leads to emergence of other diseases aggravating health of the patient. For example, the characteristic satellite of a chronic gastroenteritis – anemia.
Gradually symptoms of intoxication of all organism accrue: weakness, increased fatigue, irritability, dizziness, sleeplessness, decrease in working capacity, increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees.
Diagnostics of a chronic gastroenteritis
Diagnostic actions begin with collecting the anamnesis of a disease, the analysis of complaints and external survey of the patient. The gastroenterologist can suspect a chronic gastroenteritis, based on results of above-mentioned actions. But for statement of the exact diagnosis it is necessary to conduct tool and laboratory researches.
Surely make the general and biochemical blood test: in dynamics determine growth of quantity of leukocytes, acceleration of SOE, decrease in hemoglobin and erythrocytes (at development of anemia). Always investigate a koprogramma which allows to find undigested cellulose, muscle fibers, slime impurity, blood streaks, pus, starch and fats.
The main tool researches - FGDS with an endoscopic biopsy allowing to estimate a condition of mucous membranes of a digestive tract and extent of morphological changes of fabrics. For the purpose of definition of violation of motility the antroduodenalny manometriya is carried out; for measurement of acidity of gastric juice - an intragastric ph-metriya. If microorganisms became a cause of illness, then purposefully perform PTsR-diagnostics and carefully investigate blood, emetic masses and kcal; appoint the respiratory test for existence of a helikobakterny infection.
Treatment of a chronic gastroenteritis
At emergence of the first symptoms it is necessary to ask for the help the expert for statement of the exact diagnosis and purpose of adequate therapy at once, self-treatment can aggravate considerably a state and lead to serious consequences. Medical procedures at a chronic gastroenteritis directly depend on parameters of acidity of gastric juice and a cause of illness. Therapy is carried out in stationary conditions (office of gastroenterology).
Before purpose of treatment it is necessary to define an etiology of inflammatory process (its reason) and to stop aggressive influence of noninfectious factors and microorganisms. At detection of an infection, in particular, of helikobakteriya, prescription of antibiotics is expedient. To increase result of therapy, it is necessary to refuse addictions, to keep to a special diet, to accept more liquid and to exclude use of other medicines. It is necessary to make the diet so that it included enough protein, easily usvoyaemy fats, and to avoid the products rich with cellulose.
If increase in acidity is revealed, then the doctor appoints antatsida and inhibitors of a proton pomp. At decrease in acidity use of natural gastric juice, enzymes and reparative medicines is shown. Surely appoint the medicines restoring intestinal microflora (a probiotics, prebiotics, eubiotik), vitamins.
Forecast and prevention of a chronic gastroenteritis
The chronic gastroenteritis means obligatory hospitalization of the patient and his dynamic observation. Timely and adequate treatment, constant observance of a diet allow to achieve desirable results quickly. The forecast is favorable, but if heavy degree of pathology with the expressed intoxication and dehydration is revealed, then there is a probability of a lethal outcome.
There is no specific prevention. To reduce risk of developing of a disease and emergence of an aggravation, it is necessary to wash carefully hands before food, to check an expiration date of food, to reduce reception of medicines, not to self-medicate, observe a healthy diet, work and rest, and also to completely exclude addictions.