Allergy to a citrus
The allergy to a citrus is a type of food allergy at which allergens are the components of citrus fruit and substances used for processing of these fruits. Manifestations of this syndrome include skin reactions, reactions of mucous membranes, violations of work of respiratory, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Diagnostics is carried out on the basis of the anamnesis, and also by statement of skin tests out of the aggravation period. As treatment the modern allergology suggests to apply a method of a specific immunotherapy. Symptomatic treatment includes reception of antihistaminic and hormonal medicines, enterosorbents.
Allergy to a citrus
The allergy to a citrus is considered in allergology as a kind of food allergy - specific hypersensitivity on the external alien irritant getting to an organism with food. As the substances starting such allergic reaction in this case components of fruits of a citrus act. Many experts allergists-immunologists consider that in development of an allergy to a citrus the significant role is played by chemicals which process fruits for preservation of appearance, attractive to buyers. Most often for these purposes the diphenyl – active connection without color, taste and a smell, and for protection against insects and other wreckers – fungicides and sulfuric gas is used. Also it should be noted that the fermental system of the person usually adapts to the food ordinary for the area in which he was born and grew that increases risk of developing of food allergy at consumption of products, exotic for this geographical region what a citrus is for us.
Prevalence of this pathology in our country is connected with deterioration in the general ecological wellbeing together with the level of import of a citrus which increased for the last decades from China, South Africa, Egypt and Morocco. The person who was earlier eating, for example, couple of segments of orange for New year could even not guess that its organism will answer the regular use of this fruit with pathological reaction of hypersensitivity. Most often such allergy happens acquired.
Reasons of an allergy to a citrus
Citrus carries to products of high degree of allergiziruyushchy activity. When developing an allergy to a citrus the high-molecular component of a citrus – usually this proteinaceous connection having anti-gene activity can be allergen. The same as alien, special chemicals which process fruits for preservation of a trade dress, extension of an expiration date, giving of additional appeal to the buyer can be apprehended by an organism. Important value has also the high content of liquid and sugar in citrus fruit – because of it at the wrong storage fruits quickly become covered by a mold which, in turn, is also strong allergen. Storage of citruses near other moldy food promotes cross contamination – fungal particles can appear on a fruit even if storage conditions are completely met.
Genetic tendency to allergic diseases or other immune pathologies, the congenital or acquired decrease in immunity, violation of functioning of digestive tract, urinary system can act as additional factors of developing of an allergy to a citrus. Frequency and quantity of the citrus eaten as well as age of primary receipt of an anti-gene in an organism – all this considerably influences an organism susceptibility to allergen.
Symptoms of an allergy to a citrus
Allergic reaction arises practically at once, usually for development of the first symptoms there is enough 10–15 minutes. External symptoms of an allergy from forty minutes to several days remain. The range of symptoms is rather wide in view of the fact that the disease influences various bodies and systems of human organs.
Very often, especially at patients of children's age, such allergy is shown by skin reactions, namely development of unpleasant rash, itch, reddenings, small tortoiseshells, eczemas. The eye syndrome is expressed in the form of allergic conjunctivitis: there is hypostasis, an itch, reddening mucous an eye, dacryagogue. Respiratory manifestations vary from allergic rhinitis (a nose congestion, the slime expiration) to the bronchospasm which is followed by the whistling breath and attacks of suffocation. From a gastrointestinal tract the following pathological reactions - stomach pains, diarrhea, a meteorizm, nausea, vomiting can be observed. Less often the hearing disorder and dizziness against the background of the lowered arterial pressure meet.
At severe forms of allergic reactions emergence of life-endangering symptoms, such as Quincke – the pronounced, promptly developing angioneurotic hypostasis, an asthmatic attack, anaphylactic shock swelled is possible. Without immediate rendering to the specialized ambulance medical assistance and further control of the state of health by the doctor by the allergist-immunologist such complications can lead to a lethal outcome.
Diagnosis of an allergy to a citrus
Diagnostics is carried out on the basis of the collected anamnesis, establishment by the attending physician of connection of the fact of reception of a product with emergence of symptoms. As an allergy to a citrus – the state most often acquired the doctor-diagnostician should pay attention as to functioning of digestive and secretory systems, and to the immune status of the patient. As it is impossible to exclude also the genetic nature of a disease, the doctor should request and analyse the family anamnesis of the patient. In the course of the choice of the scheme of treatment it is important to distinguish an allergy to a citrus from individual food intolerance of a concrete product.
Distinguish hypersensibility to citruses by means of the skin tests put by method of a skarifikation or method of the prik-test. Some days before carrying out such test of the patient has to cease to accept symptomatic treatment (antihistaminic or hormonal medicines) in order to avoid false-negative results. The test is carried out by means of the fruits of water-salt solutions allocated from pulp proteinaceous complexes. Apply liquid droplets with allergen on the leather of inside of a forearm processed by disinfecting structure and test liquid for an exception of false results. Through the put drop – a lancet or a needle – put with sterile individual tools scratches or pricks about 1 mm in depth. In case of positive result reaction is observed in fifteen-twenty minutes after the beginning of the test, it remains up to forty minutes. As such test is specific, it allows to allocate a certain type of provocative allergen, and as appropriate to optimize the patient's diet.
Treatment of an allergy to a citrus
Symptomatic treatment is appointed depending on weight and expressiveness of symptoms of an allergy. It can be antihistaminic (, ) or hormonal medicines (Prednisolonum). For knocking over of skin symptoms use antihistaminic ointments, for elimination of a congestion of a nose – vasoconstrictive sprays and drops.
To remove allergen traces from an organism, the doctor writes out sorbents. The sorbent carries out detoksikatsionny influence, adsorbs the remains of an anti-gene and toxic products of metabolism on the surface, interferes with their absorption and reduces intensity of external manifestations of allergic reactions.
The specific immunotherapy is carried out by consecutive introduction of the increasing allergen dose, since the minimum values. It is capable to save the patient from an allergy to a long time. As in case of this type of an allergy it is rather easy to exclude allergen from a diet, some kind of etiotropny therapy is avoiding of consumption of a citrus. Skin test will help to define what fruit causes hypersensitivity reaction, in certain cases it will only be possible to exclude it, not necessarily abstaining from all citrus fruit.
Forecast and prevention of an allergy to a citrus
In order to avoid emergence of repeated pathological reactions it is enough to refrain from the use of an allergenic product. The people suffering from an allergy, and in particular to patients with the complicated allergic reactions in the anamnesis should have in continuous access antihistamines, and also adrenaline solution for injections on a case of development of hypostasis of Quincke or anaphylactic shock. Having faced an allergy episode at itself or at the loved one, it is better not to postpone a campaign to the allergist-immunologist – the disease can threaten with life-threatening sudden complications.