Callosity — the local thickening of blankets of skin arising under the influence of pressure or friction most often on brushes and . Distinguish dry and wet callosities. The last look as usual wounds and demand the corresponding treatment. Dry callosities represent dense limited sites of the become lifeless skin. Regular processing of a dry callosity when carrying out a pedicure or manicure and carrying special protective equipment, as a rule, leads to its gradual reduction and disappearance. Only in certain cases surgical treatment of a callosity is necessary.
Usually the dermatology faces a callosity problem at development of complications in the form of infection or in cases when long attempts of the patient to get rid of a callosity did not result in desirable results. The majority of callosities pass during regular removal of layers of the coarsened skin from their surface. This procedure is usually carried out in offices of manicure and a pedicure.
Causes of a callosity
At continuous friction or pressure on a certain site of skin there is an intensive necrosis of its blankets. At the same time the died-off cells of epidermis do not manage to exfoliate and be removed from the surface of skin. Stratification and consolidation of the become lifeless epidermis with formation of a callosity results. At the increased perspiration sweat softens the become lifeless skin and the soft callosity is formed. Under a layer of reinforced epidermis the lymph can accumulate that leads to emergence of a water callosity.
Formation of a callosity on brushes is connected with continuous friction of skin of hands about the tool handle (the hammer, a chisel), garden stock (a chopper, secateurs), an apparatus (a crossbeam, bars, a tennis racket) or a musical instrument (at violinists, guitarists, etc.). The callosity can arise on skin of elbows and knees.
On the callosity most often arises because of inconvenient and too tight footwear. So shoes on a high heel cause a sdavleniye of forward department of foot, too thin sole increases load of the foot arch, and rough internal seams of footwear can render additional friction. Continuous friction of certain sites of skin of foot with formation of a callosity can be caused by the wrong gait or sports (runners, skiers). Often callosities are connected with various diseases and deformations of foot: bursit or the arthritis of joints of foot deforming osteoarthrosis, flat-footedness, molotkoobrazny fingers of foot, a calcaneal spur.
Manifestations of callosities
The firm callosity represents the dense limited thickening of skin of yellowish or yellow-gray color which is a little towering over an integument surface. The firm callosity differs in small sensitivity and in itself usually does not cause pain. The pain syndrome is caused by pressing on a callosity during the work with the tool or walking, at a sdavleniye close footwear.
The soft callosity has an appearance of an open wound and is characterized by the expressed morbidity. The water callosity or dropsy represents the bubble containing serous liquid. When opening a bubble the wound covered from above with the remains of the become lifeless bubble skin is formed.
Separately allocate a rod callosity. Most often such callosities are formed on skin of small pillows in the area III and IV of interdigital intervals. They can meet on the back of fingers and occasionally on a sole. The rod callosity is the dry callosity having the root which is deeply leaving under skin. In the center of a callosity there is an opening from which its "hat" is visible. Usually formation of a rod callosity happens on the space of penetration for skin of a small stone or a splinter.
At the wrong treatment of a callosity, its cutting, education on its surface of cracks there can be an infection. The microorganisms getting at the same time into a callosity cause its inflammation that is shown by reddening, hypostasis and the expressed morbidity of a callosity. Without due treatment there is a softening of a callosity and when pressing pus begins to be emitted for it. Inflammatory process from a callosity can extend to surrounding fabrics with development of abscess or phlegmon, to foot bones with developing of osteomyelitis, to sinovialny covers and joints of foot.
Diagnostics of a callosity
It is not difficult to diagnose a callosity on characteristic appearance at all. It is necessary to distinguish a callosity from an agnail, inflammatory changes in joints of plusnevy bones, a disease of Morton, genetically caused raised skin orogoveniye. Some warts, especially plantar, on appearance can remind a callosity. A distinctive sign is big sensitivity of a wart and emergence of morbidity at its scrolling while the callosity hurts when pressing.
If the patient addressed on consultation of the dermatologist, then the doctor surely has to find out what formation of a callosity is connected with. For this purpose he will ask the patient about his work, a hobby, sports and other hobbies, character of shoes which he usually wears. At localization of a callosity on foot the doctor will perform the inspection directed to identification of deformations and diseases of foot, if necessary will direct the patient to the chiropodist, the rheumatologist or the orthopedist. Presence at the patient of such diseases as diabetes is important, the neuritis obliterating endarteriit, varicose veins with chronic venous insufficiency. At identification in the anamnesis of such diseases definition of the most adequate tactics of treatment of a callosity requires consultation according to the endocrinologist, the neurologist, the vascular surgeon or the phlebologist.
Treatment of a callosity
As a rule, the callosity which is not followed by a pain syndrome does not demand treatment. When developing pain it is necessary to eliminate a factor it defiant: tight footwear, friction about the tool handle, etc. Special protective linings for a callosity help to soften the friction and pressure upon a callosity arising when walking. Such lining can be made independently. Cut out a circle with an opening in the center from soft and rather thick fabric. The circle is put so that in the central opening there was a callosity. If callosities are under toes, use the special plusnevy lining made of felt, rubber or soft plastic. At a callosity arrangement on fingers apply prokladok between fingers, sleeves and covers to fingers. The dividing fingers of laying eliminate their friction the friend about the friend. Sleeves and covers which put on on fingers protect their side surface and tips.
In case of a dry callosity processing of a callosity is carried out in beauty shops as the separate procedure or during performance of a pedicure or manicure. For this purpose apply the special structures softening a callosity, salicylic acid, a hardware pedicure. Soft callosities and opened dropsy surely process antiseptics with imposing of a protective bandage which is fixed a plaster.
At identification of deformations of foot orthopedic treatment is whenever possible carried out. In case of the accompanying pathology leading to violation of an innervation or blood supply in the field of a callosity, treatment has to be carried out together with the corresponding expert. If conservative methods of treatment of a callosity do not bring result, its removal is necessary. Cryodestruction of a callosity, its removal by the laser, electrothermic coagulation, removal by a radio wave method or surgical excision can be carried out.
Prevention of formation of a callosity
The preventive actions directed to the prevention of formation of a callosity consist in wearing soft, rather free footwear with a good sole; application of protective gloves during the work with tools, kneecaps and other protective equipment on the places which are exposed to continuous friction. The correct care of skin of brushes and feet, regular use of the softening creams, processing by pumice of sites of the raised skin orogoveniye also promotes the prevention of formation of callosities.