Klattering – disorganization of speed, a rhythm and smoothness of the speech statement of not convulsive character. It is characterized by excessively fluent, muffled, monotonous speech, repetition of words and syllables, articulation violations, lexical and grammatical mistakes, the wrong arrangement of logical accents and pauses. Speech frustration is accompanied by the general motor rastormozhennost, deficiency of memory and attention, noncriticality in relation to the speech and behavior. Violation is distinguished during logopedic inspection with use of traditional and special techniques. Correctional intervention is directed to normalization of tempo of speech, development of language skills, improvement of a sound pronunciation.
Klattering (in translation from English – blocking up, a contamination) – the communicative problem which is characterized by the accelerated, dizaritmichny, not fluent speech. Along with a bradilaliya, a takhilaliya and stutter treats frustration of the tempo-rhythmic party of the speech. Klattering-sindrom meets at males more often. Usually comes to light at the age of 7-8 years. In foreign logopedics it is actively studied from the second half of last century that led to creation in 2007. The international Association on a klattering which members were 18 states. In the Russian logopedic science the klattering is not allocated in independent speech violation. In kliniko-pedagogical classification to it most closer there corresponds the term "half-sloe", or "spotykaniye". Meanwhile, some domestic experts consider a klattering within nevrozopodobny stutter.
Professor D. Weiss who published the first manual on this problem in 1964 allocated primary (pure) and secondary forms of speech frustration. It carried genetically caused klattering cases to "pure" forms, having described autosomno-prepotent inheritance of pathology at some generations of one family. It is not excluded that in some cases the spontaneous mutations arising "take place it is new". Besides, the klattering is one of specific signs of a syndrome of a fragile H-chromosome – the hereditary disease linked to a floor which is characterized by also intellectual backwardness, autistic behavior, giperkineza. At primary forms of a klattering speech features are noticeable from children's age.
Not convulsive halts and not fluent speech can accompany various neurologic frustration: to encephalitis, psevdobulbarny paralysis, trochee, Parkinson's disease, mental retardation and so forth. In these cases it is about a secondary klattering-syndrome which develops at persons with earlier normal speech against the background of the main pathology. In general, the etiology of this speech problem is studied insufficiently, is a subject of scientific discussions and further researches.
In understanding of the mechanism of speech defect there are also a lot of "white spots". It is considered that the klattering serves as a part of the general disorganization of psychomotor development – physical activity, the behavioural sphere, speech communication. It demonstrates violation of activity of striopallidarny system and the regulating influence of cortical departments of TsNS. As a result of dysfunction of brain structures the organization and any control of the general motility, mental functions and the speech is weakened. The structure of speech defect is made by disorder of smoothness of a speech stream, violation of planning of the oral message and its tempo-rhythmic characteristics. Most likely, the pathogenesis of a klattering has many common features with stutter since it is often combined with the last.
Universal classification of a klattering is absent that is explained by low-study of a problem. The options of systematization of violation described in literature reflect internal heterogeneity of group of patients with this logopatologiya. Taking into account mainly broken link of the speech allocate 2 types of a klattering:
- Motor. It is characterized by the accelerated tempo of speech and the articulation violations leading to numerous metateza, elisions of syllables or sounds. At early age at children ZRR, in school days – difficulties of reading and the letter (a dyslexia, a dysgraphia) is noted.
- Touch. First of all, smoothness of the speech suffers that is caused by the reduced acoustical control and difficulty of selection of proper words. Extension of vowels, interruption of the speech various exclamations reflecting difficulties of the formulation of a thought is typical.
Depending on results of inspection of persons with violations of smoothness of the speech it is offered to divide into three groups: patients with a "pure" klattering, with a combination of stutter and some signs of a klattering, with the klattering complicated by nevrozopodobny stutter.
At children with this speech violation originalities of oral speech, mental processes, motility are noted. A key sign – the accelerated faltering speech with constant repetitions of sounds, words, phrases. The speech abounds with words-embolami, inadvertent pauses. Often the violations of an articulation accompanied with distortion and an elision of sounds, wrong reproduction of words with complex syllabic structure, a nedogovarivaniye of the terminations come to light. The sequence and logic of a statement of thoughts is broken; each new phrase is said in a separation from previous. The statement begins loudly, but by the end passes into a silent mumbling. In general the speech incoherent, muffled, "littered". An impression is made that the prompt stream of thoughts of speaking advances the expressional statement.
At school children hardly seize grammatical and syntactic rules that leads to specific disorders of educational skills. They have careless, hardly legible handwriting, make numerous mistakes and slips in words, do not finish a letter, confusedly and incoherently state thoughts. Such feature received the name "dezintegrirovanny letter". When reading aloud a part of words is passed or distorted, the terminations "are swallowed". There are disorders of musical perception: dislike for singing and music, inability to reproduction of the elementary rhythm.
The psychological portrait of the patient with a klattering is characterized by such definitions as inaccurate, impulsive, nervous, verbose, fussy, uncontrollable. Range of attention is narrowed, are typical lack of concentration, a frequent otvlekayemost. The memory size of various modalities is reduced (visual, audialny, motive, etc.). The motor rastormozhennost, absence of control of behavior is characteristic. Awareness of the speech defect at children and adults often is absent.
First of all, the klattering is a communicative violation therefore at it, mainly, communication function suffers. The person, incoherently and muffledly stating the thoughts, not reacting to remarks, cannot be perceived surrounding as the interesting and pleasant interlocutor. The child with a klattering risks to face misunderstanding and to become the derelict in the social group. Quite often such children show deviant behavior. Speech defect considerably narrows a circle of professional realization of such patients, excluding from it public fields of activity, and also the specialties connected with verbal communication, service, training. School poor progress even more limits the prospects of development and dooms to "not success" in adulthood. And difficult korrigiruyemy is especially difficult cases of the klattering complicated by stutter.
Now there are no standard criteria of diagnostics of a klattering, their development and discussion is conducted by logoterapevta of the whole world. Certain difficulties are connected also with the fact that this speech pathology is often confused to stutter that complicates the timely beginning of necessary correctional work. The diagnostic algorithm consists of the following main stages:
- Consultation of the logopedist. Features of prenatal and early development of the child, age of emergence of halts in speeches, presence of similar defects at family members become clear. Associated diseases are specified, the conclusions of the pediatrician, the psychologist, the children's neurologist, results of medical examinations are requested (brain EEG, MRT and so forth).
- Speech research. Assessment of a tempo-rhythmic contour of the speech, features of a voice, a sound pronunciation, syllabic structure, formation of grammatical categories and the coherent statement, a condition of slukhorechevy memory is made. At school students skills of reading are studied, written works are analyzed. At a klattering, unlike stutter, there are no speech spasms, a logofobiya, speech and motive tricks.
- Studying of mental features. By means of testing, observation and experimental techniques psychomotor functions, personal features, informative development are estimated. The attention to criticality of the child to own behavior and the speech is paid. On the basis of the obtained data intellectual insufficiency, SDVG is excluded.
Within a difdiagnostika of a klattering and stutter Dali's technique is used. It represents a set of the statements divided into 4 categories: pragmatics, speech motility, informative and language development, problems of handwriting and coordination of movements. Each statement is estimated on a 6-ball scale: what more points are gained in each category, that a high probability of existence of a "pure" form of a klattering by.
Correction of a klattering
Speech and psychological features of persons with the considered logopatologiya dictate need of forming of special correctional work. First of all, it has to be directed to control of the tempo-rhythmic organization of the speech, formation of the correct sequence of the statement, development of mental functions. The operating time and generalization of practical experience in correction of a klattering proceeds. Serve as the main directions of logopedic work:
- Normalization of tempo of speech. On occupations the slowed-down fluent speech is used. After the logopedist (the reflected repetition) or together with it (the interfaced repetition) children learn to pronounce words and phrases slowly, accurately. For streamlining of oral speech the set rhythm is used. Work on expressiveness, emotionality of the statement is conducted. Inclusion of elements of logopedic rhythmics is useful.
- Improvement of speech skills. Includes ability working off it is clear and logically to state the thoughts. At this stage methods of creation of the story according to pictures, conducting dialogue, learning of verses, slow reading with retelling, the independent story are connected. The child learn to plan the statement, i.e. at first to formulate judgment "about itself".
- Improvement of articulation motility. Is important in the context of formation of the legible speech. Assumes carrying out articulation gymnastics, development of a smooth speech exhalation and sound switchings. In the absence of sounds their statement and fixing is carried out, at distortion – correction of a pronunciation.
Forecast and prevention
In pedagogical literature experience with klatterer is not generalized yet. In general it is noted that the speech forecast can be successful during the purposeful, competently planned and persistent work. Concerning prevention it is at the moment possible to speak only about the prevention of a secondary klattering-syndrome: exception of neuroinfections and other organic injuries of a brain. Minimization of adverse communicative effects requires early identification of violation and the beginning of correction. Studying of questions of an etiology and mechanisms, development of criteria of diagnostics and methods of a logoterapiya of a klattering continues.