Holodovy allergy – reaction of hypersensitivity in response to influence of low temperatures with emergence on integuments of rashes as contact dermatitis, a small tortoiseshell. The main symptoms – reddening of open sites of skin, emergence of bubbles and erosion, a peeling, cracks, an itch. Diagnostics includes collecting the anamnesis, clinical examination of integuments and mucous membranes, conducting application test. Treatment provides warming of an affected area of a body, use of antihistamines, drawing on skin of ointments and creams with anti-inflammatory and wound healing action, preventive use of protective cosmetics.
Holodovy allergy – the pseudo-allergic reaction arising at impact on an organism of low temperatures and which is characterized by development of inflammatory process on skin and mucous membranes with a sharp or chronic current. It is observed mainly during the autumn and winter period at frequent contact with cold water in open reservoirs and in life, during the cleaning of rooms, the use in ice water and soft drinks, ice cream. The clinical symptomatology includes displays of urticaria, dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma. Statistically, the holodovy allergy occurs at 10-20% of the population, women and children suffer more often.
Holodova's reasons for an allergy
The true cause of pathology is not found out. As major factors of risk are considered:
- Hereditary predisposition. The Holodovy allergy meets at persons with hereditary predisposition to allergic diseases more often, and also in the presence at relatives of hypersensibility to impact of cold.
- Vascular frustration. Microcirculation violation, deterioration in blood circulation in integuments and hypodermic cellulose (on a face, in disteel departments of the top and lower extremities) at vegeto-vascular dystonia, Reynaud's disease, excess weight and obesity.
- Chronic diseases. Chronic inflammatory process in a digestive tract (gastroduodenit, enterokolit), the top airways (antritis, tonsillitis).
- Endocrine frustration. Dysfunction of a thyroid gland, adrenal glands.
- Sensitive skin. Gentle sensitive skin, dryness of integuments, existence of associated diseases (neurodermatitis, eczema, psoriasis etc.).
- Frequent contact with cold. Long stay in cold weather with open parts of a body (a face, hands), bathing in an open reservoir, visit of the pool at small resistance to influence of low temperatures, contact with cold water in life (cleaning of rooms, washing of ware).
At Holodova of an allergy pseudo-allergic reaction which is started owing to the irritating impact of cold on corpulent cages is the cornerstone of pathological process and results from massive emission of a histamine. The inflammation mediators circulating in vessels increase permeability of a vascular wall, cause local and widespread hypostasis of skin and mucous membranes, possess the damaging action on cages. Inflammatory process can amplify at additional receipt in an organism of the products containing a histamine and also the substances stimulating its emission by corpulent cages.
Holodova's symptoms of an allergy
The disease is characterized by defeat of integuments on open parts of a body (a face, hands), irritation of mucous membranes of the top airways (the nasal courses, a throat, a trachea and bronchial tubes), an eye, is more rare – digestive tract.
- Holodovy small tortoiseshell. On face skin, including on centuries, an upper lip, and also on other open parts of the body there is hyperaemia, puffiness, rashes as a small tortoiseshell (the multiple itching bubbles, an eritema), the expressed skin itch.
- Contact dermatitis. Redness and puffiness on the limited site after contact with Holodov a factor. In 1-2 days the small bubbles filled with serous liquid are formed. After opening of bubbles formation of erosion is noted, then – a covering by their scab and scarring. If the disease gets a chronic current, the stagnant eritema which is often accompanied with infiltration, maceration of integuments develops. Arise it is long not healing cracks, skin is shelled.
- Meteorological heylit. On a red border of lips the redness, dryness, a peeling, feeling of tightness appears. Patients often lick lips to prevent unpleasant feelings.
- Damage of mucous membranes. The conjunctivitis phenomena (redness, dacryagogue, burning), vasomotorial rhinitis (, sneezing attacks), a bronchospasm (feeling of shortage of air, suffocation) can be noted.
Holodova's diagnosis of an allergy provides careful collecting the anamnesis and identification of communication of the appearing symptoms after holodovy influence. Clinical examination of the patient by the dermatologist, allergist-immunologist, otolaryngologist and other specialists in indications is necessary. For an exception of a true allergy the standard laboratory researches applied in allergology are conducted. The prik-test during which the placement on the site of skin of the top extremity of a piece of ice for 1-3 minutes is made has diagnostic value Holodova. The Allergoproba is considered positive at emergence of typical local clinical symptoms of Holodova of an allergy (hyperaemia, puffiness, emergence of a blister, etc.).
Differential diagnostics is performed with other skin diseases (simple contact and seboreyny dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, dermatomikoza, simple herpes) and allergic reactions (at atopic dermatitis, medicinal and food allergy, an allergic rinokonjyunktivit, bronchial asthma), some infectious diseases.
Treatment of an allergy by Holodova
The basic principles of therapy of this disease are the termination of contact with the irritating physical factor, use of protective equipment, reception of antihistaminic medicines, local treatment.
- Termination of contact with cold. It is necessary to warm affected areas of skin (to come into the warm room, to put on gloves, to protect a face a scarf, a scarf, a cap), to stop bathing in an open reservoir or the pool and to be wiped dry. It is useful to drink a cup of hot tea.
- Antihistaminic medicines. Allow to reduce displays of dermatitis, a small tortoiseshell: redness, itch, puffiness. Facilitate the course of vasomotorial rhinitis, conjunctivitis.
- Local treatment. Assumes use of ointments and creams with antiallergenic and anti-inflammatory action. At the expressed aggravation perhaps short-term use of ointments with glucocorticosteroids.
Forecast and prevention
The forecast of a disease in respect of recovery favorable. For prevention by Holodova of an allergy and the prevention of aggravations it is necessary to hold certain preventive events. Among them – use of protective clothes and special winter cosmetics before an exit to the street in cool weather, application in the household purposes of warm water, restriction of time of stay on the street during the autumn and winter period, an organism hardening.