Benign tumors of a large intestine - the new growths which are localized in different departments of a thick gut, coming from various layers of an intestinal wall and not inclined to metastasis. Symptoms of this group of diseases are periodic pains on the course of a large intestine, insignificant bleedings from back pass and frustration of a chair. For diagnosis of benign tumors of a large intestine the kolonoskopiya, an irrigoskopiya, a rektoromanoskopiya, a manual research of a rectum, the analysis a calla on the hidden blood, the general blood test is used. Treatment of benign tumors consists in their removal by means of endoscopy or by a resection of the site of a gut.
Benign tumors of a large intestine
Benign tumors of a large intestine represent the new growths, various on a structure, which are usually growing in a gleam of intestines and not giving metastasises in other bodies. Most often they are presented by adenomatozny polyps which develop from epitelialny fabric. Less often lipomas, angioma, fibromas, leyomioma and other neepitelialny tumors come to light. These educations mainly occur at people 50 years are more senior. However there are also hereditary forms of a disease which can be found in children and long time to proceed asymptomatically. For example, treats them family polyposes of a thick gut. Danger of this pathology is that over time it can be transformed to cancer that is connected with loss of ability of cells of tumor to a differentiation. The proktologiya and oncology is engaged in studying of benign tumors of kolorektalny localization. Diagnostics and treatment of this pathology is carried out by proctologists, oncologists, gastroenterologists and abdominal surgeons.
Reasons of benign tumors of a large intestine
The reasons of formation of benign tumors of a large intestine are finally not studied. Heredity is considered one of the major factors playing the main role in development of new growths of intestines: if relatives have intestines polyps, then the risk of development of a benign tumor of intestines increases.
This pathological process can develop against the background of the excessive use of greasy food and insufficient introduction to a diet of the products containing cellulose. The risk of emergence of benign tumors of a thick gut increases at people with frequent and long locks. Quite often the disease develops against the background of nonspecific ulcer colitis, a chronic inflammation of a large intestine and a disease Krone. Also carry a long experience of smoking to risk factors, low physical activity and age it is more than 50 years.
Classification of benign tumors of a large intestine
Benign tumors of a large intestine are presented by lipomas, leyomioma, limfangioma, nevrinoma, fibromas, gemangioma, adenomatozny polyps and fleecy tumors. Besides, belongs to this category family polyposes of a thick gut and kartsinoidny tumors. The most widespread benign tumors of a large intestine are adenomatozny polyps which develop from epitelialny fabric. The most often found benign tumor of neepitelialny genesis - a lipoma. On prevalence it concedes to polyps only a little. The lipoma differs from other new growths in a soft consistence.
Fibroma which develops from connecting fabric and occurs mainly at people of advanced age is considered rather rare tumor of a large intestine. Leyomioma who originates from smooth muscle fibers also treats rare new growths. Nevrinoma differs in the small sizes and growth in a mucous and serous membrane. Gemangioma develops from fabric of vessels of a large intestine and settles down closer to rectum border. This benign tumor is more often than others is shown by intestinal bleedings.
Symptoms of benign tumors of a large intestine
The clinical symptomatology of benign tumors of a large intestine depends on their sizes. New growths, small by the size, can not be shown in any way and often are found only during endoscopy. Therefore in most cases such benign tumors of a large intestine proceed almost asymptomatically. At the new growth sizes more than 2 cm it is shown by bloody allocations at the act of defecation and to others symptoms which depend on structure and localization of process. Besides, benign tumors are followed by belly-ache of various intensity. Pain is usually localized in side zones of a stomach. Pain can have as aching, and skhvatkoobrazny character. As a rule, it amplifies before the act of defecation and abates after depletion of intestines.
At benign tumors of a large intestine frustration of a chair in the form of diarrhea or locks can be observed. In the presence at the patient of bleedings from a tumor emergence of symptoms of anemia, such as weakness, pallor of skin and decrease in working capacity is possible. Periodically benign tumors of a large intestine are shown by an abdominal distension, vomiting or tenezma. Distinctive feature of these new growths from malignant is lack of symptoms of tumoral intoxication: decrease in body weight, plentiful sweating, fatigue and loss of appetite.
Diffusion polyposes of a thick gut often is followed by periodic intestinal bleedings which remind hemorrhoids symptoms. Bloody allocations usually arise after skhvatkoobrazny pains in the lower half of a stomach or defecation. Most often bleedings are observed at localization of polyps in the field of sigmovidny and a rectum. If diffusion polyposes proceeds without complications, it usually does not lead to violation of the general health of patients. Besides, at the uncomplicated course of a disease the palpation will not be followed by morbidity in a projection of a large intestine. However large good-quality polyps can result in full or partial intestinal impassability which is a terrible complication.
Diagnosis of benign tumors of a large intestine
For diagnosis of benign tumors of a large intestine laboratory and tool methods of a research are used. Data of objective inspection in most cases are not informative. In certain cases pallor of skin and existence of bloody allocations from an anus can be noted.
From laboratory methods the general blood test in which in the presence of bleedings decrease in level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin is noted is applied. Symptoms of anemia are most often observed at the multiple bleeding polyps of a thick gut. If benign tumors of a large intestine are complicated by an inflammation of a mucous membrane, erosion or accession of a secondary infection, in the general blood test increase in level of leukocytes and acceleration of SOE comes to light. When carrying out the analysis a calla on the hidden blood the insignificant bleedings imperceptible at survey are diagnosed.
From tool methods of diagnostics the irrigoskopiya (a radiological research of a large intestine) is used: for the best visualization of a gut enter the contrast containing barium. By means of this research defects of filling mucous are found that demonstrates existence of a tumor. Radiological criterion of benign tumors of a large intestine is existence of mobile defect of filling with smooth, smooth and accurate edges without changes of a relief of a mucous membrane. Existence of these signs allows to distinguish good-quality new growths from malignant.
Important method of diagnosis of benign tumors is endoscopy of various departments of a large intestine. By means of a rektoromanoskopiya examine a rectum and the lower departments of a large intestine. Kolonoskopiya gives the chance to examine all intestines regarding good-quality new growths. When holding this diagnostic procedure the proctologist can take fabric samples for a morphological research that will give the chance to specify morphology of a tumor and to decide on treatment tactics.
In most cases (60-75%) benign tumors of a large intestine are well visualized by means of a rektoskop or a colonoscope. Polyps can settle down or on a thin leg, or on the wide basis. The mucous membrane of benign tumors of a large intestine has normal pink color though in certain cases can be purple-red, being excreted against the background of surrounding fabrics. At development of an inflammation the mucous membrane of benign tumors becomes edematous and hyperemic that is well visible at endoscopy of a large intestine. In case of erosion defect mucous with edematous edges, covered with a fibrinozny raid is visualized.
Treatment of benign tumors of a large intestine
For treatment of benign tumors of a large intestine surgical methods which assume removal of new growths are used. The pharmacotherapy at this group of diseases is considered inefficient.
Polyposes of any localization is precancer pathology therefore it is recommended to be eliminated quickly. Single polyps are removed by means of endoscopic electrothermic coagulation or a resection of an obodochny gut. At expressed multiple to a polypose with high risk of development of cancer radical removal of an obodochny gut - a kolektomiya can be recommended. After similar surgeries reconstructive operations on an obodochny gut which allow to restore normal work of intestines are performed.
Tactics of treatment of other types of benign tumors of a large intestine is defined by a type of a new growth, its size, and also existence or lack of complications. For elimination of single benign tumors of a large intestine use a kolonoskopiya with endoscopic removal of education today. This method is applicable in the presence of solitary tumoral knot with the expressed leg. Endoscopic removal is well transferred by patients who are completely restored already next day and can come back to a habitual way of life.
The remote new growth is sent surely to a histologic research on which it is possible to specify morphology of a tumor and to make sure that in it there are no malignant cages. Surgical treatment by performance of organ-preserving or radical operations is in certain cases carried out. In the presence of an angioma of a thick gut which is also a benign disease imposing of ligatures or cryodestruction is shown.
After removal of benign tumors of a large intestine of the big sizes in a year control endoscopy which will allow not to miss formation of new polyps is recommended. If on the place of a remote tumor there are new growths again, then they need to be deleted repeatedly. In the absence of new polyps on a control kolonoskopiya the following diagnostic procedure is carried out in 3 years.
During the correct and timely removal of benign tumors of a large intestine this group of diseases has the favorable forecast. However if the polyp develops into a malignant tumor, then the disease can lead to death. After removal of a benign tumor for timely identification of a recurrence carry out a repeated rektoromanoskopiya, an irrigoskopiya or a kolonoskopiya.