Comedones – the small cysts of skin which are formed owing to a congestion or obstruction of mouths of hair follicles skin fat and slushchenny cages. Comedones can have an appearance of whitish small knots (whiteheads, the closed comedones) or black points (black eels, open comedones). Arise on fat and porous skin more often. Diagnostics and elimination of the reasons of formation of comedones is carried out by dermatologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists. In a solution competent and regular hygienic care of skin, holding cosmetology procedures is important (cleanings of skin, chemical and mechanical peelings, etc.).
Comedones are a symptom of some skin diseases, and also diseases of digestive tract, liver and endocrine violations. Skin fat, dirt and slushchenny cells of epidermis clog up pores therefore small knots comedones are formed. Comedones occur in all age groups, but at teenagers during puberty and at women, especially at changes of a hormonal background (violations of a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, a menopause) comedones meet more often. Comedones of different extent of manifestations occur at 85% in age group from 12 to 24 years. At more mature age because of natural decrease in a saloobrazovaniye comedones diagnose less often.
Reasons of comedones
The main reason for developing of comedones is a congestion of skin fat in the mouth of a hair follicle which is corked up from cells of skin and dust parts. That is, skin fat cannot be evacuated from a follicle independently and gradually collects in it. Toxins which have to be removed through a skin time interact with skin fat, dense sticky weight is as a result formed. Externally the comedone becomes noticeable when the skin fat mixed with toxins and bacteria partially comes out through the narrowed mouth of a follicle and under the influence of oxygen gets a dark shade.
The wrong care of face skin and bodies is the main reason for comedones. Use of cosmetics on the basis of fats, use of a make-up and a habit to go to bed without having washed, leads to a congestion on face skin of the become lifeless cages, the hardened skin fat, dust, bacteria and kristallik of salts (from sweat). If face skin is inclined to fat content, then one or several of above-mentioned factors are enough for formation of comedones. Genetic predisposition is too one of the reasons of comedones as at women whose close relatives had, or have face skin comedones, the percent of incidence is higher.
The increased testosterone level especially at people inclined to acne rash is stimulated by activity of sebaceous glands, besides the epitelialny cages covering an opening of a hair follicle in time do not disappear that causes at first narrowing of a channel, and then and its full obstruction then the comedone is formed. In rare instances, reception of some medicines as side effect can be followed by emergence of comedones which after cancellation of medicines pass independently.
At stressful situations the composition of skin fat changes too, also during a stress people give attention to hygiene and face care less that indirectly and leads to formation of comedones. After restoration of a normal way of life and at due care of skin the comedones which arose for this reason pass independently. The humid climate and impurity of air promote accumulation on skin of microparticles of dirt and provoke formation of comedones.
Clinical displays of comedones
The first symptoms of comedones when there are no manifestations on skin yet, coarsening of skin and expansion of a time are. Fat skin, but inclined to a peeling is too clinical manifestation which precedes comedones. Skin color becomes unhealthy, with gray, sometimes a greenish shade. Cosmetics keeps badly as "flows down" from skin because of its increased fat content. At this stage therapy is most effective as there are no small knots comedones yet or they are at a stage when the mouth of a follicle is completely closed. A part of fat still can be evacuated from a follicle, but some part it remains inside therefore on skin it is possible to notice small hillocks which are well felt when stroking sites of the person with a large number of sebaceous glands (A T-face zone and a chin).
Further there are open comedones which resemble a small knot with a black point because of oxidation of a superficial part of skin fat superficially. The closed comedones are under skin, and therefore, without having an opportunity for evacuation of contents, often inflame. Externally look as pink or red hillocks with the skin which is not changed or inflamed from above.
Independent removal of comedones leads to formation of hems, accession of a secondary infection of purulent character with development of a piodermiya. Therefore on skin of patients are available as not opened comedones, and pustulous rash, sometimes there are serous and bloody crusts on the place of the squeezed-out comedones.
Diagnostics and treatment of comedones
The diagnosis is made on the basis of visual survey and poll of patients. Almost always there are associated diseases of digestive tract and endocrine violations. Therefore consultation of the gastroenterologist and endocrinologist is recommended to patients with comedones.
Treatment of comedones has to be complex. It is necessary to carry out therapy, and at impossibility – correction of the main disease. The cosmetic procedures directed to normalization of production of fat and on a slushchivaniye of the dead of cages help to revitalize skin and to return it the normal state. It is necessary to treat more attentively personal hygiene, to wash with detergents no more than 2 times a day, to touch as seldom as possible face skin with hands and not to assume that hair fell on the person.
Peeling with fruit acids and microdermabrasion skim dead cages. Then it is recommended to put the cosmetic medicines having antikomedogenny properties on a face. The inflamed sites wipe with salicylic solution and apply antibacterial gels. Reception of vitaminokompleks and observance of a hypoallergenic diet with an exception of fat and sweet dishes is obligatory. At accession of a secondary infection reception of antibacterial medicines is shown.