Conjunctiva tumors – good-quality and malignant new growths of the thin transparent cover of an eye covering a forward part skler and an internal surface a century. Are shown by cosmetic defect. Sight violations are possible. Malignant tumors of a conjunctiva are capable to germination of surrounding fabrics and metastasis. The diagnosis is established by the ophthalmologist taking into account complaints and results of survey of structures of an eye. Treatment – traditional surgical intervention, a laser ekstsiziya, laser coagulation, electrothermic coagulation, cryotherapy, local medicamentous therapy.
Conjunctiva tumors – group of the epitelialny, pigmentary, vascular tumors proceeding from a conjunctival cover. Benign tumors come to light at children's age more often, quite often have congenital character. Malignant and precancer defeats are mainly diagnosed for people of advanced and senile age. In most cases tumors of a conjunctiva come from epitelialny or pigmentary cages, is more rare – from subepitelialny layers. The forecast, as a rule, favorable for life (except for a melanoma), however some new growths including good-quality, can become the reason of violations of sight and changes of structures of an eye. Treatment is performed by experts in the field of oncology and ophthalmology.
Benign tumors of a conjunctiva
Papilloma – rather widespread tumor of a conjunctiva of an epitelialny origin. Arises in the first days of life. Represents single or multiple soft small knots with a large number of the small vessels giving to new growths reddish or pinkish coloring. Tumors of a conjunctiva settle down on the thin, often bleeding leg. Are inclined to a retsidivirovaniye. Seldom are exposed to malignant regeneration. Treatment – surgery, cryodestruction, at multiple papillomas – laser vaporization or applications of a mitomitsin.
Stationary nevus – one more often found conjunctiva tumor. Comes from melaninsoderzhashchy cages. Makes about 20% of total of good-quality new growths of this cover of an eye. Usually arises at children's age. The pigmentary tumor of a conjunctiva looks as a flat smooth spot of yellowish or brownish color with accurate contours. At a third of a nevus pigmentation is absent. In the absence of growth and signs of an ozlokachestvleniye treatment is not required.
Dermoid (a dermoidny cyst of a conjunctiva, ) – the congenital cystous tumor of a conjunctiva containing ektoderma elements. As well as a stationary nevus, about 20% of total of good-quality new growths of a conjunctiva make. There can be one - or bilateral. It is usually localized outside from a cornea. Represents oval elastic knot of yellowish coloring. Can sprout a cornea. Dermoids of the big size can limit the movements of an eyeball. Treatment - surgical excision.
Gemangioma – a tumor of a conjunctiva of a vascular origin. Has congenital character. As a rule, settles down in an internal corner of an eye. Looks as a congestion of strongly wavy cyanotic vessels. At early stages removal by the laser, in the subsequent – electrothermic coagulation is shown.
Limfangioma – the rare tumor of a conjunctiva coming from walls of lymphatic vessels. Usually comes to light at adults. Represents the elastic mobile formation of usual or pinkish-yellow coloring which is not changing volume when pressing. This tumor of a conjunctiva is inclined to slow, but steady growth. In the absence of treatment can reach the big sizes, obstruct the normal traffic of an eyeball and become the reason of rough cosmetic defects. After removal can recur. Treatment is surgical.
Transitional tumors of a conjunctiva
Epiteliom Bowen – obligate precancer defeat of a conjunctiva of an epitelialny origin. As a rule, arises at mature age. It is localized near a limb. At initial stages the tumor of a conjunctiva represents flat or slightly outstanding light gray plaque. In the subsequent becomes more massive, towers over a surface more, gets a nacreous shade. Can sprout a cornea. Treatment – surgical intervention (it is possible in combination with before - and postoperative processing mitomitsiny), korotkodistantsionny X-ray therapy.
Acquired – a precancer pigmentary tumor of a conjunctiva. Usually arises at the age of 40-50 years. Looks as a flat dark stain with accurate contours. Can strike a considerable part of a conjunctiva and pass to a cornea. Duration and features of a course of this tumor of a conjunctiva significantly vary. Spontaneous recovery is sometimes noted. At 25-75% of patients the ozlokachestvleniye is observed. Treatment – electrothermic coagulation, laser coagulation, at emergence of signs of a malignization – radiation therapy.
The progressing nevus – the precancer tumor of a conjunctiva coming from pigmentary cages. Color of a new growth can differ from dark brown to light yellow or pinkish. Increase in the size, emergence of motley coloring (alternation of the pigmented and not pigmented areas), blurring of contours and increase in number of vessels is observed. Treatment is quick.
Malignant tumors of a conjunctiva
Conjunctiva cancer – primary malignant tumor of a conjunctiva which is usually arising against the background of precancer diseases. It is diagnosed seldom, strikes mainly people of advanced age. Men are ill more often than women. Risk factor is constant excessive insolation. On appearance the tumor of a conjunctiva can remind Bowen's disease or orogovevayushchy papilloma. Represents the grayish or whitish film penetrated by teleangiektaziya or a congestion of small knots of pinkish coloring. In the course of growth the tumor of a conjunctiva extends to nearby fabrics, can sprout an orbit, give metastasises in cervical and parotid lymph nodes.
Cancer can be also localized on inside of a century. Such new growths proceed more zlokachestvenno in comparison with the conjunctiva tumors located in the area skler. At initial stages the knot grows vnutrikonjyunktivalno, causing a thickening and consolidation of a century. In the subsequent the ulceration is possible. When progressing the tumor of a conjunctiva extends to plaintive meat, a cornea and a conjunctiva skler, but does not sprout a tarzalny plate.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of survey and results of a biopsy. Limited knots of the small size are subject to expeditious removal. Use of a diatermokoagulyation is possible. At big tumors of a conjunctiva apply X-ray therapy or beta therapy. At defeat of an orbit carry out an eye-socket ekzenteration. The forecast is rather favorable. At the tumors which are not extending to an orbit, lack of a recurrence within 5 years after the end of treatment is noted at 50-80% of patients.
Melanoma – the malignant tumor of a conjunctiva arising against the background of the acquired melanoz (75%), the progressing nevus (20%) or not changed fabrics. Represents smooth or hilly opukholevidny education. Can be pigmented (yellowish, brown) or deprived of a pigment. Usually settles down at an internal corner of an eye or near a limb. At survey on a slot-hole lamp the pigmented "paths" dispersing out of conjunctiva tumor limits are found.
When progressing can give rise to new knots in the field of a conjunctiva, sprout to a skler and an orbit, and also to spread in regionarny lymph nodes and the remote bodies. Treatment is quick. At early stages carry out removal of a tumor of a conjunctiva with surrounding fabrics, at germination skler carry out an eyeball enukleation, at germination of an orbit – an eye-socket ekzenteration. Apply X-ray therapy and chemotherapy. Forecast in most cases adverse.