Simple contact dermatitis
Simple contact dermatitis — the inflammatory reaction of skin arising in response to direct influence of the irritating substances (alkalis, acids, detergents, solvents, chloric lime, etc.). Symptoms of a disease depend at most and the nature of influence. It can be reddening of skin, dryness and cracks, hypostasis, formation of bubbles or the ulcerations covered with a scab. Diagnosis of simple contact dermatitis and its differentiation from other dermatitis is based on identification of connection of developing of a disease with impact on skin of the struck area of chemical. Treatment consists in elimination of a causal factor, local application of glucocorticoids, the anti-inflammatory, healing and antibacterial means.
Simple contact dermatitis
Along with simple contact dermatitis allergic contact dermatitis enters into group of contact dermatitis. However in dermatological practice it meets less often. Simple contact dermatitis represents reaction to direct influence of an irritant and arises at the first contact with it. The allergic option of contact dermatitis is caused by allergic reaction of the slowed-down type and develops at numerous influence of allergen.
Symptoms of simple contact dermatitis
The clinical dermatology allocates sharp and chronic forms of simple contact dermatitis. Depending on character of the substance influencing skin, and specific features of permeability of epidermis one of three options of sharp contact dermatitis can develop: eritematozny, bullous or necrotic.
Eritematozny dermatitis is shown by reddening and hypostasis of the site of skin contacting to an irritant. Morbidity and an itch are expressed poorly. Dryness of skin and emergence of cracks on it is possible. The bullous option of simple contact dermatitis is presented by the bubbles of various size filled with transparent liquid. Bubbles appear on a hyperemic background and burst with formation of erosion. Morbidity, feeling of heat or burning is characteristic.
Necrotic dermatitis arises at influence of caustic substances and is characterized by formation of ulcerations which surface is covered with a scab. The pain syndrome is expressed. After there is a healing of ulcers, on skin there are hems.
The chronic form of simple contact dermatitis develops at repeated influence of a weak irritant. Most often skin of hands is surprised. The disease is, as a rule, connected with use of means of household chemicals or professional activity. Chronic dermatitis is characterized by strengthening of the drawing of skin, stagnant hyperaemia, infiltration, dryness of skin and giperkeratozy. Atrophic processes in skin are in certain cases observed. Subjective feelings are poorly expressed and disturb the patient a little.
Diagnosis of simple contact dermatitis
The diagnosis of simple contact dermatitis is established by the dermatologist on characteristic clinical manifestations and accurately traced connection of emergence of symptoms with impact on skin of the irritating substance. At suspicion on the allergic nature of contact dermatitis consultation of the allergist and conducting skin allergic tests is necessary. Emergence of signs of a purulent inflammation speaks about contamination of the place of defeat and is the indication for the bakposev separated with obligatory drawing up an antibiotikogramma.
The histologic research of a sample of the affected skin reveals the bubbles containing congestions of neutrophils in the top layers of epidermis. At chronic simple contact dermatitis expansion and lengthening of thermal nipples is observed , .
Treatment of simple contact dermatitis
The basic principle of treatment is a definition and elimination of the reason of emergence of simple contact dermatitis. Eritematozny dermatitis usually does not demand treatment and independently passes at elimination of a causal factor. For reduction of symptoms of an inflammation use of anti-inflammatory powders or creams is possible. At bullous option make piercing of large bubbles without removal of their tire. For prevention of secondary infection grease area of bubbles with solution of permanganate of potassium or aniline dyes. In treatment of necrotic dermatitis apply the healing ointments.
In hard cases of sharp simple contact dermatitis perhaps local use of glucocorticoid ointments and system purpose of small doses of corticosteroids. Accession of a secondary infection is the indication for performing antibiotic treatment. At chronic option of dermatitis regular use of the softening ointments and creams is recommended, at damage of hands — application of protective gloves.