Cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
Cyst of a yellow body of an ovary – the functional retentsionny formation of yaichnikovy fabric which is formed on the place of not regressing yellow body. The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary proceeds almost asymptomatically; in rare instances is followed by insignificant morbidity in the bottom of a stomach, the violation of a menstrual cycle complicated by a current. Diagnostics includes survey of the gynecologist, ultrasonography, doppler sonography, a laparoscopy. The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary can independently regress during 3 menstrual cycles; at complications the kistektomiya, a resection or removal of an ovary is shown.
Cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
Yellow body – gland which is cyclically formed in an ovary which arises on the place of the ovulating graafov of a bubble (follicle) and produces hormone progesterone. The name to gland was given by the lipokhromny pigment which is present at its cages and giving them yellowish coloring. The yellow body develops in an ovary in the second (lyuteinovy) phase of a menstrual cycle. In a blossoming stage the yellow body reaches the size of 1,5-2 cm and one pole towers over the surface of an ovary. In case of lack of fertilization the yellow body at the end of a lyuteinovy phase is exposed to involute development and stops production of progesterone. At pregnancy approach the yellow body does not disappear, continues to increase and function within 2-3 months and carries the name of a yellow body of pregnancy.
Features of a cyst of a yellow body
The Lyuteinovy cyst of an ovary is formed of the yellow body which did not undergo regression in which owing to violation of blood circulation there is an accumulation of liquid of serous or hemorrhagic character. The size of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary usually makes no more than 6-8 cm. The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary occurs at 2-5% of women of reproductive age after establishment of a two-phase menstrual cycle.
The clinical gynecology differentiates the cysts of a yellow body which developed out of pregnancy (from an atrezirovanny follicle), and also the cysts of a yellow body arising against the background of pregnancy. Cyst of a yellow body of an ovary more often unilateral, odnopolostny; has the capsule covered from within by granular lyuteinovy cages, it is filled with reddish-yellow contents. Independent disappearance of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary happens during 2-3kh menstrual cycles or in the II trimester of pregnancy.
Reasons of formation of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
The reasons of formation of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary are up to the end not clear. It is considered that formation of a cyst of a yellow body is caused by a hormonal imbalance and violation of blood circulation and a limfoottok in ovary tissues. The risk of formation of a lyuteinovy cyst increases against the background of administration of drugs for stimulation of an ovulation at infertility or preparation for EKO (for example, citrate clomifene) and medicines of the emergency contraception.
The probability of formation of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary under the influence of heavy physical and mental activities, harmful conditions of production, violation of food (monodiets), frequent ooforit and salpingooforit, abortions is not excluded. All these factors can lead to an endocrine imbalance, and, therefore, and to formation of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary.
Symptoms of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
The symptomatology at a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary is poorly expressed. Often lyuteinovy cysts develop within 2-3 months then spontaneously and suddenly are exposed to involution.
The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary revealed during conducting pregnancy does not pose a threat for the woman and a fruit. On the contrary, lack of a yellow body of pregnancy on early terms can cause spontaneous termination of pregnancy in view of hormonal insufficiency. The return development of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary at pregnancy also most often happens spontaneously to 18-20 weeks of a gestation: by this time the created placenta completely undertakes gormonoprodutsiruyushchy functions of a yellow body.
The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary can sometimes cause insignificant morbidity, feeling of weight, a raspiraniye, discomfort in a stomach on the party of development. The Lyuteinovy cyst producing progesterone can cause a delay of periods or, on the contrary, the long periods caused by uneven rejection of endometrium. Lyuteinovy cysts of an ovary never malignizirutsya.
Most often the symptomatology develops at the complicated course of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary – overwind legs, hemorrhage in her cavity or apopleksiya of an ovary. In all these cases the clinical picture of a sharp stomach – the skhvatkoobrazny sharp pains having poured character, vomiting, tension and sharp morbidity of a stomach, positive peritonealny symptoms, a delay of gases and a chair, disappearance of peristaltic noise, intoxication, etc. is observed.
Diagnosis of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
Diagnosing of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary is carried out taking into account the anamnesis, complaints, the given gynecologic research, ultrasonography, a laparoscopy. The vaginal research allows to reveal sideways from a uterus or behind it the tugoelastichesky education having limited mobility and sensitivity at a palpation.
Ekhoskopicheski a cyst of a yellow body decides in the form of anekhogenny uniform formation of a round form from 4 to 8 cm in the diameter, on equal accurate contours, sometimes on a fine suspension inside. Dynamic ultrasonography in the first (follicular) phase of a menstrual cycle is made for exact recognition of a lyuteinovy cyst. Carrying out color doppler sonography (TsDK) is directed to an exception of a vaskulyarization of internal structures of a cyst and differentiation of retentsionny education from true tumors of an ovary.
As well as at other revealed tumors and cysts of an ovary, the research of an onkomarker of SA-125 is shown. For an exception or confirmation of pregnancy definition of a horionichesky gonadotrophin, the test for pregnancy is carried out. In cases when it is difficult to differentiate a cyst of a yellow body from other new growths (a kistoma of an ovary, tekalyuteinovy cysts of ovaries at a horionepitelioma and a puzyrny drift, etc.) and extra-uterine pregnancy, carrying out a diagnostic laparoscopy is required.
Treatment of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
Observation of the gynecologist, ultrasonic dynamic control and TsDK during 2-3 menstrual cycles is shown to patients with the small and clinically not shown cyst of a yellow body of an ovary. For this period the cyst can undergo regression and disappear completely.
Symptomatic and recurrent cysts of a yellow body of an ovary can also resolve under the influence of conservative anti-inflammatory therapy, selection and purpose of hormonal contraceptives, carrying out a balneoterapiya (medical bathtubs and vaginal irrigations), a peloidoterapiya, laser therapy, SMT-forez, an electrophoresis, an ultrafonoforez, magnetotherapy. For treatment of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary physical activities, sexual activity in order to avoid a perekrut or a rupture of opukholevidny education are limited. If within 4-6 weeks a lyuteinovy cyst the issue of its expeditious removal does not resolve, resolved.
Planned intervention concerning a cyst of a yellow body is most often limited to a laparoscopic vylushchivaniye of a cyst within not changed ovarialny fabrics and ushivaniy its walls or an ovary resection. In case of development of complications (necrotic change of tissues of ovary, bleeding, etc.) the laparotomy with an ooforektomiya in the emergency order is shown.
Prevention and the forecast at a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary
The prevention of formation of functional cysts of ovaries is promoted by timely and full treatment of inflammations of bodies of reproductive system, and also correction of the broken hormonal balance. Observation of the gynecologist-endocrinologist and ultrasonography control at detection of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary allows to take necessary measures in time and not to allow complications. The cyst of a yellow body of an ovary does not pose a threat for the developing pregnancy. At spontaneous regress or planned removal of a cyst of a yellow body of an ovary the forecast favorable.