Allergy to cosmetics
Allergy to cosmetics – hypersensitivity to the substances which are a part of cosmetics (creams, varnishes, shampoos, lipsticks, spirits, deodorants, paints etc.). It is characterized by development of allergic reactions with defeat of integuments, lips, hair and nails. The allergy to cosmetics is more often shown in the form of a small tortoiseshell and contact dermatitis, the top airways (rhinitis, a bronkhoobstruktion) are surprised less often. Diagnostics includes collecting the anamnesis, clinical examination, carrying out skin application tests and laboratory researches. Treatment provides refusal of problem cosmetics, use of antihistaminic medicines and topichesky glucocorticosteroids.
Allergy to cosmetics
Allergy to cosmetics – hypersensibility of an organism to certain cosmetic production and components which are contained in its structure with development of allergic reaction of the slowed-down type (at a small tortoiseshell and an allergic contact inflammation of skin) or not immunological reactions (at simple dermatitis). On statistical data, each adult daily uses at least 5-7 cosmetics, at the same time at least one case of intolerance is observed during life at every tenth inhabitant of our planet. Most often allergic reactions occur at women at the age of 20-30 years, especially in the presence at them the dry and injured skin. In the USA from 50 to 150 thousand cases of intolerance of cosmetic medicines annually come to light.
Reasons of an allergy to cosmetics
Any means applied on integuments, lips, hair and nails for clarification, protection, improvement of appearance and giving of a pleasant smell can cause an allergy to cosmetics. It belongs to spirits, deodorants, means for shaving, to lipsticks, creams, shampoos, nail varnishes, dyes, bath preparations, toothpastes and sun-protection medicines. By production of cosmetics use more than 70 thousand various organic and inorganic components, practically all of them can become the reason of allergic reactions, chemical irritation of integuments and mucous membranes.
Among potentially dangerous substances – natural and synthetic oils and fats (cod-liver oil, lanolin, castor oil, gelatin), emulsifiers (a lauryl, trietanolamine), preservatives (propylene glycol and formaldehyde), fragrances, vegetable infusions and extracts, enzymes and so forth. Pathological process arises in direct contact of an anti-gene with integuments (putting cream, lipstick, paint), remotely (sprays, deodorants), an airborne way (during an aromatherapy, at steam inhalation from perfumery of other person), at impact on integuments of ultra-violet radiation and activization under its influence of the allergens which earlier got into an organism.
The mechanism of development of pathological process at an allergy to cosmetics is caused by the hypersensitivity of the slowed-down type arising at hit on integuments of full-fledged allergen or a gapten which becomes a full-fledged anti-gene after linkng with fabric proteins. At primary contact with problem substance there is a sensitization of lymphocytes, at repeated – activization by T-cages of macrophages, development of an allergic inflammation to primary infiltration of cages and minor vascular changes.
The maximum expressiveness of reaction of the slowed-down type is noted in 12-20 hours and is shown by signs of damage of skin (mononuclear infiltration, epidermis hypostasis, formation of bubbles). The easiest hypersensitivity develops at hereditary predisposition to allergic manifestations, excessive sweating, the thinned horn layer of skin and hypersensibility of integuments to influence of separate components of cosmetics.
Symptoms of an allergy to cosmetics
The clinical symptomatology of an allergy to cosmetics is characterized by development of skin manifestations in the form of dermatitis, a small tortoiseshell and a photosensitization. Much less often (at steam inhalation and aerosols of perfumery production) signs of an allergic rinosinusopatiya and bronchial asthma are observed. Defeat of integuments without immunological reaction quite often results from long influence of problem means and is shown by dryness of skin in the beginning, then – emergence of maceration, the itching cracks and vesicles. Besides, on local sites of skin the resistant eritema, a peeling and can come to light. With alkaline or acid properties of medicine formation of the large bubbles which are followed by burning and pain is possible.
Allergic inflammatory defeat of integuments has a similar clinical picture and in 80% of cases is localized on a face and a neck. Less often nail plates of hands are involved in process. At an allergy more expressed reddening and puffiness of integuments is noted, multiple vesicles are found more often. The area of defeat can occupy the sites which were not contacting directly to an anti-gene.
The allergic inflammation on a face is most often localized in the upper and lower eyelids owing to a subtlety of skin and its hypersensibility on these sites, and also a regular travmatization at contacts with the polluted fingers and chemicals which are contained in air. Injury of skin is shown a century by reddening, a peeling, puffiness and an itch. Quite often inflammatory process in a face arises in connection with irritation of skin at contact with the artificial nails or aggressive substances which are contained in nail varnish. At the same time limited sites of defeat in area a century, corners of eyes, behind ears are defined.
Hypersensitivity signs in the field of a red border of lips are observed when using lipstick and shown by symptoms of a heylit. Defeat of perioralny area and an oral cavity can be noted when using toothpaste. Less often symptoms of an allergy to cosmetics (shampoos, styling sprays) are found in the field of a hairy part of the head in the form of reddening, a peeling, puffiness of skin and an itch. Development of a cosmetic photosensitization at intensive ultra-violet radiation leads to emergence of symptoms of dermatitis, small tortoiseshell and an edematous eritema.
Diagnostics and treatment of an allergy to cosmetics
Diagnostics includes careful collecting data on the postponed diseases and the used cosmetics, performing clinical examination by the doctor by the allergist-immunologist, dermatologist, stomatologist and other experts, the analysis of results of the researches applied in allergology. Use of application tests – a basis of detection of an allergy to cosmetics. Tests are carried out to the mezhpristupny period, problem means is applied on skin of a back or a forearm for two days then the result of a research is estimated repeatedly in 30 minutes, and then in 3, 4 and 5 days after removal of medicine. Laboratory methods of a research (reaction of braking of migration, a rozetkoobrazovaniye, etc.) are less specific. Differential diagnostics is performed with simple contact dermatitis, neurodermatitises, other not allergic and allergic pathological states.
It is necessary to provide the fastest termination of contact with problem cosmetic, its removal from the surface of skin and mucous membranes. In a sharp stage of an allergy to cosmetics the local medicines reducing the displays of a disease (cooling compresses and tanning broths, Burov's liquid are applied). Glyukokortikosteroidny hormones (locally, inside and parenterally) and antihistamines are used.