Cystitis – an inflammation of walls of a bladder. Subfebrilny body temperature is characterized speeded up (each 15-20 minutes), by sharply painful urination in the small portions, sometimes with blood impurity. Transition of a disease to a chronic form, ascension of an infection and development of inflammatory process in kidneys are possible, at degression – in an urethra. With diagnosis of cystitis the urologist is helped by data of the analysis of urine and results of ultrasonography of a bladder. For definition of an etiology of cystitis bacterial sowing of urine and dab from an urethra are carried out. Therapy of cystitis means first of all effective medicamentous impact on the infectious agents who caused it.
Cystitis – an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a bladder. In most cases cystitis has the infectious nature. The disease is widespread, affects representatives of the weaker and stronger sex, but meets at women owing to some anatomic features of a structure of a female body more often.
The female urethra (urethra) is wider and shorter men's therefore it is simpler to causative agents of an infection to get into a bladder. It causes more frequent occurrence of cystitis at women. Most often women of childbearing age get sick with cystitis. Cases when cystitis develops at one woman repeatedly are frequent, significantly worsening quality of her life.
As a rule, cystitis is caused by representatives of opportunistic flora – colibacillus, streptococci, stafilokokka etc. Sometimes cystitis arises because of infection with causative agents of diseases, sexually transmitted, – a mycoplasma and an ureaplasma.
The most characteristic symptom of cystitis is the painful urination which is followed by residual feelings of burning and gripes. Besides, patients with cystitis are disturbed by pains in the lower part of a stomach and feeling of incomplete depletion of a bladder. Sometimes at cystitis the urine incontience appearing at strong desire to urinate develops.
Urine at cystitis can become muddy or get a reddish shade owing to impurity of red blood cells. Temperature sometimes increases to 37,5 degrees. Rise in temperature at cystitis can signal about a possible disease of kidneys therefore in such cases it is necessary to ask for the qualified medical care urgently.
Prevalence of cystitis
Sharp cystitis is one of the most widespread urological diseases. Most often uncomplicated cystitis at which microbes affect only a mucous membrane meets, without affecting a submucous layer. According to domestic researches in the field of urology in Russia with sharp cystitis from 26 to 36 million people get sick every year. At the same time incidence indicators among women make 500-700 episodes on 1000 whereas among men aged from 21 up to 50 years the similar indicator is equal only 6-8 cases for 1000.
Girls have cystitis three times more often than boys. The disease extremely seldom is found in newborns and children aged till 1 year and is more widespread among children at the age of 1-3 and 13-15 years. Most often cystitis occurs at children aged from 4 up to 12 years.
Chronic cystitis is also among widespread urological diseases. According to researches, chronic cystitis suffers from 11 to 21% of the population. The considerable variability of data is caused by various approach to definition of chronic cystitis. One authors of researches consider that the diagnosis "chronic cystitis" should be made if the frequency of aggravations makes 2 times a year and more, others do not concretize the frequency of aggravations.
Cystitis during the summer period
It is unlikely there will be a woman who will want that the pleasure from warm summer days was saddened by such unpleasant disease as cystitis. Meanwhile, during the summer period, especially – if the woman leaves far from the house and gets to an unusual situation, there are many reasons for developing of cystitis.
The most common causes of developing of cystitis in warm season:
- the accommodation on the new place during the holiday causing problems at observance of rules of hygiene;
- the overcooling of an organism arising owing to long bathing in cold water;
- the violation of the usual mode of an urination connected with flight, moving or stay on the new place (in such conditions the woman quite often should suffer long, waiting for an opportunity);
- the sharp climate change which is negatively influencing immunity.
Increase in sexual activity against the background of the listed conditions, adverse for a female body becomes additional risk factor of development of cystitis sometimes.
If your holiday was saddened nevertheless by developing of such unpleasant disease as cystitis, it is necessary to address the urologist urgently. For specification of the diagnosis it will be necessary to undergo ultrasonography of a bladder and to make the test of urine. Modern antibacterial medicines effectively influence on causative agents of cystitis, allow to accelerate recovery and to prevent transition of sharp cystitis to chronic.
Unlike medicines of the previous generations which influenced all organism, modern antibiotics applied to treatment of cystitis selectively affect the inflamed bladder tissues, practically without exerting impacts on other bodies and systems. Concentration of drugs reaches the maximum sizes only in urine and the inflamed mucous membrane of a bladder. It allows to minimize toxicological load of an organism at treatment of cystitis and to increase efficiency of medicines.
From the drugs applied to treatment of cystitis it should be noted which, along with sharp selectivity of action and the minimum toxicological load of an organism, has one more remarkable quality. This medicine does not cause phototoxicity.
Phototoxicity – the unpleasant side effect caused by many medicines for treatment of cystitis. It is shown in hypersensibility to sunshine, emergence of reddening and burns even at influence of ultraviolet rays of small intensity. Develops because of existence in medicines of the substances having properties of photosensitizers and photoreactants. Such substances lead to emergence in skin of a large number of free radicals that, in turn, causes destruction of cells of skin, an inflammation and burns.
Unlike other medicines for treatment of cystitis, does not cause phototoxicity, and, means – it is possible to accept it, without breaking the planned mode of beach rest. It is also possible to refer almost total absence of side effects to advantages of a fosfomitsin that does possible safe and effective treatment of cystitis at children and pregnant women. At sharp uncomplicated cystitis of rather single reception of a fosfomitsin, and, means - it is not necessary to carry with itself tablets and to be distracted by treatment during the holiday. well copes with the chronic and complicated cystitis forms, but in these cases it is accepted according to more difficult scheme.
Cystitis at pregnancy
Cystitis can develop on any term of pregnancy. The probability of development of cystitis increases owing to the shift of internals on which the increasing uterus, changes of a hormonal background and haemo dynamics presses. Influence of these factors becomes the reason of incomplete depletion of a bladder, and the urine remains serve as the favorable environment for development of bacteria in a bladder.
At the first symptoms of cystitis the pregnant woman has to undergo extraordinary consultation of the gynecologist who carries out conducting pregnancy and to tell it about the appeared symptoms. In case of need the doctor will give to the patient the direction to the urologist.
Cystitis can develop at the child of any age, however, for girls of preschool and school age the risk of developing of a disease increases by 5-6 times. A number of factors is the main reasons for frequent development of cystitis in children of this group. Ovaries of girls did not begin to produce estrogen yet, barrier properties of mucous are low, and the wide and short urethra allows pathogenic microorganisms to get into a bladder cavity easily.
The probability of development of cystitis increases when developing other diseases owing to decrease in immunity and formation of favorable conditions for reproduction of pathogenic microbes in an urethra. The main way of prevention of cystitis at girls is careful observance of rules of hygiene.
70-95% of the patients having sharp cystitis, have the reason of development of a disease colibacillus (E .coli), in 5-20% of patients find staphylococcus (Staphylococcus saprophyticus), and at the others acts as the causative agent of cystitis proteas (Proteus mirabilis) or a klebsiyell (Klebsiella spp). Usually cystitis is caused by representatives of opportunistic flora. At development of cystitis owing to tool or surgeries gramotritsatelny bacteria become the cause of a disease often. The conducted researches confirm that not only bacteria, but also viruses, mycoplasmas, trichomonads, hlamidiya and various fungi can be causative agents of cystitis.
Prevalence of cystitis at women is caused as the small length and a wide gleam of an urethra, and its arrangement concerning other bodies. The female urethra, unlike men's, is close to back pass. Anatomic features and topography of a female body promote penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into an urethra, their migration to a bladder and to development of cystitis.
At men cystitis develops seldom. Men usually have the cause of cystitis an inflammation of an urethra, prostate gland, appendages of testicles and seed bubbles. Sometimes infection of an urethra happens owing to a bladder kateterization at women and at men.
The risk of developing of cystitis increases when carrying out a kateterization of a bladder at the men having prostate adenoma, one of symptoms of which is the constant delay of urine. Danger of development of cystitis increases also at introduction of a catheter of the pregnant woman or recently given rise woman that is caused by decrease in a tone of urinary tract.
Treatment of cystitis
Bystry treatment of cystitis and complete recovery of a mucous membrane of a bladder is possible at a timely initiation of treatment and use of medicines of sufficient efficiency. It is necessary to emphasize that chances of full disposal of cystitis increase at timely diagnosis and use of medicines which perniciously influence on causative agents of an infection. A late initiation of treatment and prescription of medicines which only eliminate cystitis symptoms, without influencing the pathogenic environment, can lead to transition of sharp cystitis to chronic.
The main task facing the doctor who treats cystitis – destruction of the pathogenic microorganisms which got into a bladder and caused an inflammation mucous. The choice of medicines for performing antibacterial therapy of cystitis is defined by such parameters as duration of a disease and degree of expressiveness of symptoms. Besides, at selection of medicines possible side effects, absorbability of medicine, a way and speed of its removal, existence of associated diseases etc. are considered.
Efficiency of medicine at treatment of cystitis is defined by ability of this medicine to influence these or those microorganisms. It is necessary to remember that pathogenic bacteria adapt and become tolerant to antibiotics. Several decades ago successfully applied to treatment of cystitis + trimetopry, ampicillin, nitroxoline and . However, over time the main causative agent of cystitis (colibacillus) became steady against influence of these medicines. Besides, the medicines for treatment of cystitis relating to the previous generation of antibiotics had rather high level of toxicity and caused various side effects.
At the choice of medicine for treatment of cystitis it is necessary to consider also the cost of treatment which is determined not only worth one tablet, but also real efficiency of an antibiotic, duration of reception and possible risk for health of the patient. Today there are available medicines for treatment of cystitis which are selectively influencing on causative agents of a disease. Getting to an organism, medicine concentrates in a bladder that allows to increase its efficiency. Besides, use of antibiotics of the last generation provides reduction of terms of treatment of cystitis, reduces probability of emergence of side effects and reduces risk for the patient's organism.
One of modern medicines for treatment of cystitis – . Medicine reaches the maximum concentration in urine, allows to reduce treatment duration significantly. The low probability of emergence of side effects and their weak expressiveness gives the chance to use medicine at treatment of cystitis at pregnant women and children. Lack of phototoxicity (increase in sensitivity of skin to sunshine, caused by many medicines for treatment of cystitis) allows to apply to treatment of cystitis even during the solar summer period. When developing sharp cystitis of rather single reception of a fosfomitsin. At treatment of chronic cystitis increase in a dose up to two bags of medicine which need to be accepted once a day is possible.
Accepting , you should not forget also about other ways of treatment of cystitis. It is necessary to exclude greasy and spicy food from a diet, to increase reception of liquid and to avoid overcoolings. Well helps at cystitis the warm hot-water bottle placed on the lower part of a stomach. Perhaps complex treatment of cystitis in application of an ionoforez, UVCh or induktotermiya. It is worth to remember that in the presence of certain gynecologic diseases physiotreatment and thermal procedures are contraindicated.
Useful tips according to the prevention of cystitis:
- Try to avoid overcooling.
- Despite of circumstances, follow rules of personal hygiene.
- For hygienic procedures use the neutral sparing detergents.
- During periods in due time change hygienic laying.
- In time empty a bladder.
- Increase liquid consumption.
- Excessively fitting clothes can worsen blood circulation in the field of a basin therefore it is better to refuse such clothes.
- Try to normalize work of intestines. At tendency to locks it is necessary to increase a share of fresh fruit and vegetables in a diet.