Dysbacteriosis – the state caused by intestinal microflora violation, connected with change of specific structure of bacteria. At dysbacteriosis the quantity useful and lactobacilli is reduced, and the quantity of pathogenic (pathogenic) microorganisms increases. Dysbacteriosis accompanies many diseases of digestive organs, the long or uncontrollable use of antibiotics, immunodepressants, influence of harmful factors of the environment. It is shown by locks, ponosa, small appetite, a dream, belly-aches, skin rashes. In especially hard cases of a bacterium of digestive tract can be found in blood that threatens with development of sepsis.
Dysbacteriosis () intestines – the disease which is characterized by pathological change of structure of normal flora of intestines, promoting violation of functioning of intestines.
The adult's intestines normal contain about 2-3 kg of various microorganisms (about 500 types). These are the bacteria-simbionity which are directly involved in the act of digestion. In a healthy organism the qualitative and quantitative individual structure of microflora stays in a condition of physiological balance – a normobiotsenoz (eubioz). At changes in structure of intestinal flora this balance collapses that negatively affects ability of intestines to digestion.
Functions of normal microflora
- trophic function – providing an organism with nutrients;
- power function – ATP supply, energoobesecheny an intestinal epithelium;
- peristaltic function – chemical regulation of a vermicular movement;
- regenerative function – participation in differentiation of cages when updating an epitelialny vystilka of intestines;
- participation in maintenance of ionic balance;
- formation of gas structure in intestines;
- participation in biochemical processes in intestines – deactivation of poisons, activation of medicines, formation of biologically active agents, neurotransmitters, alarm markers and ;
- protective function – participation in local immunity, production of immunoglobulin, a cytopatronage, ensuring resistance of an epithelium to pathogenic and cancerogenic factors, capture of viruses, reading of genomes of pathological microorganisms;
- participation in metabolism of proteins, fats, bilious acids and many other major components of food, synthesis of vitamins of group B, pantothenic acid;
- maintenance of constancy of the physical and chemical environment of intestines.
Reasons of development of dysbacteriosis
The intestinal dysbiosis practically never happens primary pathology, and develops owing to these or those violations of work of bodies or systems, or under the influence of the administration of drugs and substances which are negatively operating on microorganisms.
- The Yatrogenny intestinal dysbiosis arises owing to reception of the medicines suppressing activity of microorganisms (antibiotics, sulfanylamide medicines, hormonal means, cytostatics, etc.). Also dysbacteriosis can become result of surgery.
- Improper feeding, lack of a diet of necessary components, its imbalance, any presence of the chemical additives promoting suppression of flora, failures in a diet, sharp change of character of a diet.
- Any psychological stresses.
- Infectious diseases of intestines.
- Other diseases of digestive bodies (pancreatitis, hepatitis, gastritis, etc.).
- Immune frustration, endocrine diseases, exchange violations.
- Violation of biorhythms, acclimatization.
- Violation of intestinal motility.
- Dispepsichesky syndrome – diarrhea (sometimes – alternation of locks and ponos), a meteorizm, an abdominal distension, an eructation and unpleasant smack in a mouth, rumbling in intestines.
- At many (especially at children), having intestinal dysbacteriosis, arise not characteristic earlier allergic reactions to food. Reactions can be as usual allergic character (urticaria, a skin itch, a bronchospasm, angioneurotic hypostasis), and intestinal (the liquid foaming chair, sharp belly-ache, nausea up to vomiting, lowering of arterial pressure).
- The malabsorption syndrome – violation of absorption in intestines of various necessary nutrients is shown by insufficiency of substrata of exchange – proteinaceous and power insufficiency, various hypovitaminoses, first of all, as a rule, on group of vitamins B, anemia, violations of ionic balance, insufficiency of calcium, etc.
- Organism intoxication – weakness, lack of appetite, subfebrilitt, headaches.
- Decrease in immunity – increase of infectious diseases (ORZ, a SARS, herpes), fungal diseases.
Diagnosis of dysbacteriosis
Diagnosis of intestinal dysbacteriosis in gastroenterology is begun with identification of characteristic dispepsichesky violations on the basis of complaints, perform fizikalny inspection. At diagnostics, as a rule, symptoms of dysbacteriosis are shown against the background of primary pathology, or that is present at the anamnesis. Surely pay attention to the treatment taking place the medicines suppressing microflora.
The most specific technique of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal dysbacteriosis – the analysis on dysbacteriosis and a calla. Dysbacteriosis of a small intestine is diagnosed by means of a bacteriological research of scrape or an aspirat of a lean gut, but owing to labor input this technique is applied only in cases of doubtfulness of other diagnostic criteria. The koprogramma, biochemistry of kalovy masses, the gas-liquid analysis can show indirect symptoms of an intestinal dysbiosis.
Treatment of dysbacteriosis
Treatment of an intestinal dysbiosis is performed by the gastroenterologist and means therapy in several directions – pathogenetic treatment (eradication of the cause of a disease), correction of the arisen pathological condition of digestion, removal of sharp symptoms of a disease, strengthening of protective properties and restoration of a normal biocenosis in intestines.
- Pathogenetic therapy is directed to primary pathology, and also includes measures for restoration of motor functions of intestines, removal of the arisen inflammation, performing replacement fermental therapy.
- Sick intestinal dysbacteriosis showed the diet No. 4 (modifications depending on a state) contributing to normalization of activity of intestines, reduction of activity of putrefactive processes. Food has to be carefully balanced on composition of nutrients and a power component. Respect for balance of content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, supply of an organism with vitamins and minerals, enough liquid is obligatory. It is necessary to pay attention to a diet, its compliance to biorhythms.
- Inclusion in a diet of the products containing food fibers, live bacterial cultures.
- Correction of structure of microflora by means of the selective not soaking up antibacterial medicines (), intestinal anti-septic tanks (), the medicines containing cultures antagonists of pathogenic intestinal flora, bacteriophages.
- Apply immunomodulators to restoration of immunity (ekhinatsea medicines, nucleinic acids, etc.).
Restoration of normal microflora is carried out with the help:
- probiotics (the medicines containing live cultures of necessary microorganisms);
- prebiotics (the substances promoting growth and reproduction of useful flora);
- sinbiotik (the complex medicines containing both microorganisms, and necessary for their development components).
Prevention of dysbacteriosis
Prevention of an intestinal dysbiosis for healthy people means healthy nutrition with observance of the mode, presence at a diet of the products containing useful microorganisms (the fermented milk products, substances containing bifido-and acidophilic bacteria, food and drinks on the basis of ferments). Balance of food on composition of substances, vitamins and minerals necessary for an organism is obligatory.
For babies optimum prevention of dysbacteriosis is the breastfeeding forming and immunity of the child. Breast milk has optimum composition of prebiotics for development of healthy intestinal microflora.
As the intestinal dysbiosis most often arises owing to the use of medicines actions, in such cases as prevention of this disease rational purpose of pharmacological means, an integrated approach to treatment of infections – purpose of medicines according to the carried-out antibiotikogramma, a certain degree of resistance of this or that activator to antibiotics, parallel administration of drugs for correction of a biocenosis of intestines acts.
At long-term treatment by antibiotics it is obligatory to include in therapy the special diet containing the products rich with useful bacteria, antifungal and immunostimulating, and also antihistaminic therapy.