Enterokolita – the sharp and chronic diseases of a digestive tract which are characterized by an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a small and large intestine. The Simptomokompleks at an enterokolita includes belly-aches, digestion violation signs (nausea, a meteorizm, abdominal murmur, ponosa or locks, impurity of slime and blood in a chair). Enterokolita are diagnosed on the basis of data laboratory (koprogramma, bacteriological crops a calla) and tool (kolonoskopiya, a X-ray analysis) researches. Treatment consists in observance of a diet, reception of medicines (antibiotics, enzymes, probiotics), carrying out physical therapy.
Enterokolit – the digestion violation syndrome caused by an infectious or noninfectious inflammation of a small and large intestine. On a current enterokolit happens sharp and chronic. Sharp enterokolit most often it is combined with sharp gastritis (gastroenterokolit) and differs on the origin on infectious and noninfectious enterokolit. The inflammation of intestines can sometimes have an allergic etiology, and besides, poisoning with poisons and medicines can serve as the reason to development of a sharp enterokolit.
In case of a sharp enterokolit (unlike chronic) inflammatory process is limited to mucous and does not affect deeper layers. Chronic enterokolit often becomes result of badly lechenny acute inflammation of intestines. This disease proceeds is long, with the periods of aggravations and remissions, destructive changes of mucous develop over time and submucous layers of a wall of a gut are taken. Long chronic enterokolit leads to permanent violations of functional characteristics of intestines, disorder of digestion.
Enterokolita are classified by the cause:
- bacterial (specific – infection with the bacteria causing intestinal infections as that: salmonellosis, , dysentery; nonspecific – the suppression of a bacterial infection arising later);
- parasitic (as a result of settling of intestines not bacterial parasites – helminths, amoebas, trichomonads);
- toxic (mucous is damaged by toxic agents of various nature – drugs, poisons, caustic chemicals);
- alimentary (enterokolita owing to improper feeding);
- mechanical (turn out to be consequence of frequent and long locks);
- secondary (develop as a complication of other diseases of the digestive system).
Symptoms of an enterokolit
Sharp enterokolit begins suddenly, with the expressed sharp clinical symptoms: pain, abdominal murmur, swelling, nausea, can be vomiting. Language is laid over by a raid, at a palpation morbidity of a stomach comes to light. As a rule, the disease is followed by diarrhea. In cases of the infectious nature of an enterokolit in Calais reveal slime, sometimes blood. Besides temperature increase of a body and symptoms of sharp intoxication (weakness, a headache, a muscular ache) is characteristic of infectious enterokolit.
Chronic enterokolit proceeds as with the low-expressed clinical symptoms at early stages of a disease, and it is heavy, with development of life-threatening complications.
The following signs are most characteristic of an aggravation of a chronic enterokolit:
- Belly-ache, most often around a navel, but maybe poured. Expressiveness of pain depends on weight of process. Is more characteristic developing of pain in the second half of day, but also earlier pains are probable. At primary localization of an inflammation in a small intestine of pain rather stupid, moderate. The inflammation of a large intestine is shown by intensive pain. Strengthening of pain happens later a couple of hours after meal, before defecation, at physical activity, bystry walking, run, jumps.
- Disorder of defecation – locks or ponosa, their alternation.
- Meteorizm – an abdominal distension. Results from excess gas generation owing to disorder of digestion.
- Dispepsichesky syndrome. Violation of digestion of food in intestines on the fermentative, putrefactive or mixed type.
- Asteno-vegetativny syndrome. Arises at a long current of an enterokolit as a result of violation of fabric exchange (weakness, slackness, increased fatigue, tendency to apathy and violations of attention).
- Decrease in body weight. It is characteristic of patients at whom mainly affects a small intestine. At the persons having mainly colitis, decrease in body weight is possible at refusal of food as a result of fear of developing of pain and progressing of a disease.
Diagnostics of enterokolit
Sharp enterokolit the calla is diagnosed rather just on the basis of the epidemiological anamnesis, bright characteristic symptomatology and data of a koprogramma, a bacteriological research. If necessary carrying out a rektoskopiya is possible.
Chronic enterokolit is diagnosed on the basis of anamnestichesky data, poll, fizikalny inspection, laboratory and by results of tool diagnostics. The most informative method of diagnostics of an enterokolit with primary damage of a large intestine is the kolonoskopiya. When carrying out this research reveal existence of the sites struck with an inflammation mucous, erosion, ulcerations, destruction mucous, if necessary it is possible to carry out an intake of bioptatichesky test.
The radiological research reveals change of a gleam of intestines, the nature of folded structure, defects of a wall. At a laboratory research in blood reveal a picture, characteristic of digestion violation: anemia, a disproteinemiya, a dislepidemiya, violation of ionic balance, kcal with the increased content of slime, leukocytes, possible , , . The differential diagnosis of a chronic enterokolit is carried out with prolonged dysentery, congenital fermentopatiya.
Treatment of a sharp enterokolit
Sick sharp enterokolit appoint water a diet. If it is necessary – wash out a stomach. At strong ponosa and vomiting – control the volume of the arriving liquid (hydration therapy). It is possible to use rice broth and porridge on water. The painful symptom is removed by spazmolitikam, if necessary carry out dezintoksikatsionny therapy infusionally. At an infectious enterokolit include antibiotics and sulfanylamide medicines in therapy. As prevention of dysbacteriosis the medicines restoring normal intestinal flora are appointed.
Treatment of a chronic enterokolit
In treatment of a chronic enterokolit elimination of the etiologichesky reason of its development is of paramount importance. For this purpose apply the following measures:
- normalization of the mode and character of food;
- cancellation of the medicines promoting violation of work of intestines;
- treatment of a bacterial or parasitic infection;
- treatment of diseases of digestive tract (gastritises, duodenit, etc.).
After eradication of an immediate cause of development of an enterokolit carry out measures for treatment of violations of digestion, motility, dysbacteriosis. All sick chronic enterokolit showed a diet. Out of an aggravation appoint a table No. 2, for an enterokolit with primary locks – a table No. 3, at a prevalence of ponos – a table No. 4.
At the expressed dyspepsia limit the use of products: at putrefactive dyspepsia – fermented milk products, complex proteins and rough cellulose, at fermentative dyspepsia – the whole milk, rye bread, cabbage, products containing sugar. In case of primary localization of an inflammation in a small intestine the diet rich with protein, vitamins and minerals with high content of calcium is recommended, the components irritating mucous are excluded from a diet (sharp, salty, sour, fried).
- antibacterial means for suppression of pathological flora (furasolidone, );
- fermentosoderzhashchy means for restoration of normal digestion of food (a lipase, amylase, protease, Pancreatinum);
- about - prebiotics (bifido-, lakto-, enterbakteriya, nutrient mediums for from development);
- the means normalizing an intestines vermicular movement (, loperamide, ).
It is possible to apply microenemas with officinal herbs to local treatment of an inflammation. At ponosa to enter infusions of bark of an oak, a St. John's Wort, bird cherry; at tendency to locks – sea-buckthorn oil, at a meteorizm – camomile broth. For healing of erosion and ulcerations, stops of bleeding apply .
Sick chronic enterokolit in depression of mentality treatment at the psychotherapist can be recommended. At a chronic enterokolit consultation of the physiotherapist for selection of complex physiotherapeutic treatment which can include is recommended: SMT, procedures for clarification of intestines, different types of reflexotherapy, magnetotherapy, etc. Sanatorium treatment in balneological resorts during remission yields good result in respect of improvement of the general state, fixing of remissions and improvement of quality of life.
Physical activity in the period of an aggravation needs to be reduced. But during the periods of a stukhaniye of clinical symptoms regular trainings by physiotherapy exercises, walks, aerobics are recommended. Active lifestyle contributes to normalization of digestion and all functions of an organism, improvement of the psychological status. It is worth avoiding sports in which the probability to injure a stomach is high. Special exercises for muscles of a stomach not only strengthen a belly wall, but also regulate pressure in an abdominal cavity, contributing to normalization of work of intestines.
Prevention and forecast of an enterokolit
Prevention of diseases of intestines consists in avoiding of the factors promoting development of enterokolit: timely treatment of infections and parasitic diseases, respect for norms of the healthy balanced food, administration of drugs strictly according to indications, without abuse, adequate measures of treatment of diseases of digestive tract.
In time and adequately treated sharp enterokolit completely recovers and does not leave consequences for an organism. In 3-6 weeks after the postponed infectious enterokolit intestines completely restore the work. The current of a chronic enterokolit depends on timeliness of identification, elimination of the reason of its emergence and observance of measures for normalization of food and a way of life.