Fungal defeats (mycoses) – group of diseases which cornerstone the infection of skin, mucous membranes, nails, hair caused by pathogenic fungi is. As the general manifestations serve the peeling, the moknuty, inflammatory phenomena of skin, stratification of scales, a severe itch, a thickening and change of structure of skin, nails, hair. At raschesa – accession of a secondary infection and suppuration. Diseases are infectious, considerably reduce quality of human life, causing physical and psychological discomfort, problems of cosmetic character. There can be a generalized fungal defeat of all organism.
Fungal diseases are a group of diseases of skin which causative agents are nitchaty mushrooms, infection occurs at contact with the sick person or with objects, obsemenenny disputes; a part of fungal diseases is caused by saprofitny microflora which is pathogenic at decrease in protective functions of an organism.
Keratomikozami is called by fungal diseases at which mushrooms are localized in a horn layer and do not affect skin appendages, keratomikoza, as a rule, of a malokontagiozna. Such diseases concern to them as otrubevidny deprive, an eritrazma and actinomycosis.
Otrubevidny or multi-colored deprive – one of the most often diagnosed fungal diseases of skin. It is clinically shown in the form of pinkish-brown spots with an easy otrubevidny peeling. It is localized on skin of a neck, a breast, a back and shoulders, any inflammatory reactions from the changed skin not observed. Diagnose for teenagers and people of middle age. The increased sweating promotes infection with it and other fungal diseases. The centers of defeat have scalloped outlines and tendency to merge because of peripheral growth. The skin affected with this fungal disease is not capable to pass ultraviolet, pernicious for microorganisms. On the sunbathed skin it is possible to see shelled the top layer terms under which the secondary leykoderma develops. Usually the peak of a recurrence falls on the spring period. Diagnose otrubevidny deprive on clinical manifestations and by means of test with iodine – when greasing the center of defeat, scales get more intensive coloring. For confirmation of the diagnosis and an exception of other fungal diseases conduct a scrape research. The mushroom strikes mouths a follicle, and therefore it is not possible to achieve full treatment.
Ointments with the maintenance of a terbinofin and intrakonazol at prolonged use eliminate symptomatology multi-colored depriving, but therapy has to be complex, it is recommended to avoid wearing someone else's clothes, during treatment to follow rules of personal hygiene more carefully, and during the periods of remissions to use cosmetic medicines with antifungal effect.
Actinomycosis is a chronic fungal disease of skin, its activator is the radiant mushroom, widespread in the nature on cereals therefore the people working at mills in agrarian complexes and in bakeries get into risk group. Damage of internals is possible if disputes of a radiant mushroom get through a mouth. The skin affected with a fungal disease and fabrics of an infiltrirovana, infiltrate dense, inclined to peripheral distribution, at the edges it is possible to observe granulations. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the anamnesis, a clinical picture and microscopy if there is a need, then conduct a bacteriological research.
Therapy of actinomycosis has to be complex as this type of a fungus causes not only fungal diseases of skin, but also affects internals. Antibiotic treatment after sensitivity definition, radiation of affected areas, transfusion of components of blood and, in extreme cases surgical excision of fabrics are shown. Respect for personal hygiene, use only of the hairbrushes and he, washing of hands and a body after contact with animals, and also treatment of the diseases reducing immunity are the only prevention of keratomikoz.
Dermatofitiya are chronic fungal diseases of skin with damage of epidermis in this connection inflammatory reaction from skin is observed. The most widespread fungal diseases of this group – a trichophytia, a microsporia, and mycoses of feet (epidermofitiya).
The trichophytia caused by an antropofilny fungus causes superficial damages, and the zoofilny trichophytia is shown in an infiltrative nagnoitelnoy to a form. A source of an infection are sick people, animals and objects, obsemenenny fungus disputes.
This fungal disease is characterized by limited roundish sites of defeat on a hairy part of the head, fragility of hair and an insignificant peeling of skin is noted. At children the trichophytia usually passes by puberty period, adults more often are ill chronic forms. Women of middle age get into risk group. Hypovitaminosis, endocrine violations also increase probability of a disease at contact with the activator. The trichophytia affects a hairy part of the head, smooth skin and nails.
The microsporia – a fungal disease of skin, clinically similar to a trichophytia, is externally shown in the form of the crossed rings from bubbles, crusts and small knots if a microsporia a hairy part of the head is surprised, then the centers have tendency to transition to smooth skin. The itch and other subjective feelings are absent.
At microscopy it is possible to see a mycelium, changes of skin, characteristic of fungal defeats, and hair, but it is impossible to differentiate a microsporia from a trichophytia. If the exact differentiation is necessary, then resort to cultural diagnostics.
Usually treatment of fungal diseases from group of dermatofitiya is carried out by mycologists or dermatologists in a hospital. Anti-fungal medicines, such as Fungoterbin are shown, Ekzifin, administration of drugs is conducted daily prior to the first negative microscopic research, and further pass to the supporting doses. Hair in the centers of defeat shave off and process iodine tincture, and for the night do applications with sulfur-salicylic ointment.
Favus – the fungal disease affecting skin, a hairy part of the head, nails and sometimes internals. Contageousness of this fungal disease average, children and women are ill mainly, the family centers of an infection are most often observed.
It is clinically shown by emergence around hair of a skutula, the skutula is a yellowish crust with a saucer-shaped vdavleniye, skin in the center of defeat is hyperemic. Over time skutula merge and form a uniform crust with an unpleasant musty smell. Hair grow dull and become thinner. At the long course of a fungal disease the hair loss and postfavusny baldness is observed. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations and cultural inspection.
At therapy of a favus the good effect gives course treatment modern antifungal medicines – , , , a course of treatment not less than a month, the dosage is selected proceeding from weight of defeat. Hair in the center of defeat shave off, for a softening use Salicylic ointment as applications for the night. In the morning processing of head skin is carried out by iodic solutions.
Fungal diseases of feet are widespread. People, with the increased perspiration of legs, neglecting personal hygiene, athletes and visitors of saunas, pools, public beaches get into risk group. Dryness of skin of feet, tendency to formation of cracks, wearing rubber footwear and endocrine violations promote development of fungal diseases as the healthy uninjured skin is less sensitive to an infection. At the erased form of fungal diseases of feet the insignificant peeling, reddening and an itch in interdigital folds is observed, after contact with water the symptomatology can amplify. In the absence of treatment the arches of feet are involved in process and diagnose a skvamozny form of fungal diseases of feet. Skin is thickened, there are omozolelost, sometimes hyperaemia, patients show complaints to an itch and burning.
At disgidrotichesky forms of fungal diseases of feet the foot arches are surprised generally, there are intense large bubbles with a dense film, on places of the opened bubbles - not healing painful erosion, skin around a zone of defeat is edematous and hyperemic, the pain syndrome and an itch is obviously expressed. At contact with water the cutting pains.
The Interiginozny form of fungal diseases is shown by maceration, erozirovanny cracks of different depth, pain and an itch. At a rubromikoza of feet the affected skin dry with a mukoidny peeling, the skin drawing is pronounced, the centers of defeat have scalloped outlines.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations, poll of the patient and if it is required, carry out the cultural analysis for identification of an exact type of a fungus.
Treatment of fungal diseases of feet depends on the activator, a zone of defeat and weight of process. Long reception of anti-fungal medicines, at a rubromikoza , accept long courses. Medicamentous processing of feet is carried out by anti-fungal ointments. For processing of skin and nails alternation of anti-fungal ointments and the cooling lotions is shown, in the absence of erosion apply solutions of iodine and a fukartsin. Laser treatment of fungal diseases of feet is in addition appointed.
Observance of rules of personal hygiene, washing of legs after visit of saunas, pools, beaches, fight against the increased sweating, wearing cotton socks and footwear on a season is the only prevention of fungal diseases of feet. As healthy and clean skin is a natural barrier on the way of microorganisms and mikotichesky cages.
Candidiasis is a fungal disease of skin, mucous membranes and internals. The activator is the drozhzhepodobny fungus Candida, saprofit the person who at decrease in protective functions of an organism begins to breed actively. Children, people of senile age and the having immunodeficiency enter into risk group.
Kandidozny fungal diseases of skin of corners of a mouth most often arises at people with the lower bite and a gipersalivation. The fungal diseases caused by a fungus Candida can develop only in the presence of favorable conditions, it is the increased humidity and the warm environment. Clinically kandidozny zayeda are shown by easy maceration and existence of a white raid at which removal it is possible to see the smooth reddened erozirovanny surface. Process has bilateral character and seldom goes beyond folds of corners of a mouth.
Candidiasis of skin are localized pleated, meet at people with excess body weight, inclined to perspiration and at children at hygiene violation of the rules more often. The affected area of bright red color, has a clear boundary, damp, from above is covered with a white raid, on the periphery the otsloyka of epidermis is possible.
The exception of a diet of sweet food, fancy bread and simple carbohydrates is an important point in treatment of candidiasis. Reception of the prolonged antifungal medicines, such as gives good therapeutic effect. Locally apply ointments with klotrimazoly. Besides, it is necessary to carry out treatment of an intestinal dysbiosis and to normalize work of immune system.