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Mastoptoz

Mastoptoz (the drooped breast) is characterized by omission of tissues of mammary gland and an areolyarno-mamillar complex, its deformation and loss of volume. The drooped breast represents purely esthetic problem, but its unattractive look can become the reason of disorders in private life, make the woman held down and constraining. Mastoptoz often leads to maceration of skin under mammary glands. For elimination of a mastoptoz, depending on extent of omission of a breast, different types of a mastopeksiya (periareolyarny, vertical, T-shaped, etc.), endoprosthesis replacement with simultaneous lifting of a breast can be used. Mammology inspection has to precede carrying out operation.

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Mastoptoz

The beautiful, elastic, well developed breast is a symbol of female sexuality. It, certainly, performs esthetic function, however its most important mission - production of the milk necessary for natural feeding of the newborn. Quite often childbirth and long natural feeding become the reason of emergence of the drooped breast: mammary glands fall, their top part becomes flat and sinks down, under a breast the sharp fold is designated. After the termination of a lactation chest glands considerably decrease in volume, okolososkovy circles and skin stretch. Unfortunately, neither physical exercises, nor any miracle cures are able to return to the drooped breast a former form, and the special correcting linen can only hide this shortcoming from public eyes, but not from the woman.

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Anatomo-fiziologichesky features of mammary glands

Mammary glands of the woman are the pair body dependent on the hormonal and cyclic changes happening in reproductive system. The structure and functioning of chest glands changes throughout life: in the childhood, during puberty, in the course of pregnancy, a lactation, a menopause.

The breast at girls begins to develop and grow, since 10-11 years, increasing volume and changing a form. Development of a breast approximately by 20-23 years comes to an end – at this age the breast takes the created form.

Under the influence of hormonal changes of a menstrual cycle, and further pregnancies, childbirth and a lactation skin and tissue of a breast at first stretch, then are reduced. Color and the size of an areola and a nipple are individual at each woman.

The basic morfo-functional elements of chest glands are the ferruterous segments producing milk. The ferruterous segments located tsirkulyarno around a nipple are divided among themselves by thin soyedinitelnotkanny and fatty layers. The dairy channels in the field of a nipple areola merging in lacteal sine - meshotchaty expansions which on a top open a lacteal time depart from each of segments. Tissues of a mammary gland are supported by the copular device (Cooper's teams) performing function of a corset and fastening to a pectoral muscle.

Normal the upper bounds of chest gland are at the level of II-III edges, the cross size extends from an axillary hollow to a breast, the lower bound is limited to a fold under a breast and located at the level of VII-VIII edge.

Appearance of a female breast is defined by a number of factors, the most important of which are genetic. The amount of the fatty tissue which is contained in a mammary gland varies over a wide range. At advanced age at some women fatty tissue considerably prevails over ferruterous; at such women the size and a shape of a breast strongly depend on body weight. If, on the contrary, ferruterous fabric prevails, then changes of the size and a form depend on body weight to a lesser extent. Sex hormones therefore the size of a breast changes throughout a menstrual cycle and in a postmenopause exert impact on the size of glands. Reception of contraceptive tablets also influences the breast size.

As in structure of a mammary gland muscular tissue is absent, the breast cannot be increased by means of physical exercises. Also only exercises it is impossible to raise the drooped breast.

From an obvisaniye of tissue of breast ligaments and skin hold. Tensile properties of sheaves and skin can have various degree of expressiveness. Women whose breast is a little subject to age and functional deformation make from 5 to 10%; at the vast majority of women after the delivery the breast droops and in different degree decreases in volume; at other 20% - droops, increasing in volume.

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The reasons of emergence of the drooped breast

Process of omission of tissues of mammary glands is inevitable. At the very beginning of it it is possible to slow down a little by a training of the pectoral muscles creating a bed for gland fabrics, control of correctness of food. However over time, when skin and ligaments lose elasticity and elasticity, is shown more considerably: the breast becomes drooped and flabby, the fold under gland – expressed, fabric of gland moves down, the top contour of a breast sinks down, skin stretches.

Process of an obvisaniye of a breast develops at women with various speed and is caused by a number of factors. The most part of women gets the drooped breast as a result of age aging: the return development (involution) of ferruterous fabric and weakening of the mechanisms supporting a breast.

The period of pregnancy and lactation promote increase in the sizes of a breast and its obvisaniye as a result of stretching of fabrics. At natural feeding the child during sucking delays a breast down, and further it remains in the drooped state. Degree of an obvisaniye of a breast and its reversibility depend on an initial condition of gland before pregnancy and a lactation. At young women of fabric of gland is much more elastic, and more trained pectoral muscles support a breast above. After completion of chest feeding at such women the breast is restored quickly. In other cases independently to return elasticity and a maiden shape of a breast happens it is impossible.

With a big weight and the size of a breast of fabric of gland fall by gravity. The same occurs at the women who underwent an operation on increase in a breast on two and more than sizes. The copular device cannot hold too big breast: sheaves stretch, and the breast droops.

The drooped breast can appear as a result of the broken bearing or long static situation (for example, at long sitting behind the computer monitor) as a result of weakness of the muscles supporting gland.

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Degrees of a mastoptoz

Definition of extent of omission of a breast is dictated by need of the choice of a suitable way of its tightening. Degree of an obvisaniye of a breast is defined by an arrangement of a nipple of rather submammarny fold. Distinguish the following options of a mastoptoz (the drooped breast):

  • – the most part of a mammary gland settles down below, and areolyarno-a mamillar complex - above a submammarny fold;
  • The I degree of a mastoptoz – the level of an arrangement of a nipple corresponds to the level of a submammarny fold, or is below it less than on 1 cm;
  • The II degree of a ptoz - the level of an arrangement of a nipple is lower than a submammarny fold on 1-3 cm;
  • The III degree of a ptoz - the level of an arrangement of a nipple is lower than a submammarny fold on 3 cm and more or on border of the lower pole of a breast.

Independently degree of an obvisaniye of a breast can be defined, having put the palm under a breast. If the breast covers from above no more than 2 fingers, it corresponds to the first degree of a mastoptoz. At the second degree of a ptoz the drooped breast covers 2-4 fingers, at the third – all palm.

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Operation of lifting of the drooped breast (mastopeksiya)

By means of performance of lifting of a breast – it is possible to mastopeksiya to give to a breast the desirable form, youth and elasticity. As indications to a mastopeksiya serve the drooped breast, existence of extensions or postoperative hems on skin of a breast and around nipples.

The Periareolyarny mastopeksiya – the most sparing mammoplastika method for lifting of the drooped breast - allows not only to restore the normal height of a breast, but also to reduce the size of okolososkovy area of an areola. Operation is carried out through a small section around an areola. By means of a periareolyarny mastopeksiya it is strong it will not be possible to tighten the drooped breast, but it is possible to reduce a nipple and to give to an areola the rounded correct shape. The hems located on the pigmented areola fabric are practically not noticeable.

More traditional way of correction of the drooped breast in plastic surgery is performance of circular tightening which is made through a vertical section on the back surface of a mammary gland. The essence of circular lifting of a breast consists surplus of skin, giving to gland of a form of an elastic cone, shift of nipples on height of the maximum projection of a breast at a distance.

In case of need performance to the patient not only braces, but also increases in volume of a breast, these operations can be combined. Technically operation at the same time becomes complicated, however the esthetic result will be expressed much better.

Operation of a mastopeksiya is carried out under the general anesthesia and continues from 1 to 3 hours. The hypostases arising when lifting of the drooped breast descend for several weeks, it is possible to estimate final results later half a year. Maturing of hems happens within two years.

Usually after lifting of the drooped breast complications are not observed if in the postoperative period to fulfill necessary requirements. The main thing from them - within the next month is necessary wearing special compression linen which helps to hold a new shape of a breast.

After operation it is not recommended to reduce and gain quickly weight, to apply hormonal medicines without consultation with the doctor (the mammologist, the gynecologist). New pregnancy and feeding by a breast, strong fluctuations of weight and hormonal shifts can provoke obvisany breasts again. Therefore it is more preferable to carry out a mastopeksiya after all families and feedings of the child to distance a problem of the drooped breast for an indefinite term.

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Mastoptoz - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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