Diseases of blood make numerous and heterogeneous group of the syndromes developing at violations of qualitative and quantitative composition of blood. The practical direction developing the principles of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of blood is the hematology and its separate branch – haemato-oncology. The experts who are carrying out correction of a condition of blood and the haematogenic bodies are called hematologists. The hematology is connected by the most close cross-disciplinary ties with internal diseases, immunology, oncology, transfusiology.further...
Diseases of blood make numerous and heterogeneous group of the syndromes developing at violations of qualitative and quantitative composition of blood. The practical direction developing the principles of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of blood is the hematology and its separate branch – haemato-oncology. The experts who are carrying out correction of a condition of blood and the haematogenic bodies are called hematologists. The hematology is connected by the most close cross-disciplinary ties with internal diseases, immunology, oncology, transfusiology.
Since ancient times in many cultures human blood was allocated with mystical properties, symbolized a divine source and a stream of life. "Precious", "hot", "innocent", "young", "imperial" - with what only people did not allocate with properties blood, and the epithet "blood" always meant the highest extent of these or those manifestations - consanguinity, the deadly enemy, blood offense, blood feud.
Meanwhile, from the point of view of physiology, blood represents the liquid environment of an organism which is continuously circulating on system of vessels and performing a number of the major functions - respiratory, transport, regulatory, protective, etc. Blood consists of liquid fraction - plasma and the uniform elements weighed in it – blood cells (erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes). Lymphoid fabric and a spleen belong to the main bodies of blood formation (gemotsitopoez) which are peculiar "factory" on production of blood cells red marrow, . Speak about diseases of blood in case of violation of morphology or quantity of these or those blood cells or change of properties of plasma.
All diseases of blood and the haematogenic system are classified, proceeding from defeat of this or that its component. In hematology of a disease of blood it is accepted to divide into three big groups: anemias, gemoblastoza and gemostaziopatiya. So, to frequent to anomalies and defeats of erythrocytes belong scarce, hemolytic, hypo – and aplastic anemias. The structure of gemoblastoz includes leukoses and gematosarkoma. The blood diseases connected with defeat of system of a hemostasis (gemostaziopatiya) include hemophilia, Villebrand's disease, trombotsitopatiya, thrombocytopenia, the DVS-syndrome, etc.
Diseases of blood can have the congenital and acquired character. Congenital diseases (crescent and cellular anemia, a talassemiya, hemophilia, etc.) are connected with gene mutations or chromosomal anomalies. Development of the acquired diseases of blood can be provoked by numerous environmental factors: sharp and chronic blood loss, impact on an organism of the ionizing radiyoation or chemical agents, viral infections (a rubella, measles, epidemic parotitis, flu, an infectious mononukleoz, a typhoid, viral hepatitis), alimentary insufficiency, violation of absorption of nutrients and vitamins B intestines and so forth. At penetration into blood of bacterial or fungal agents there is a serious illness of blood of infectious genesis – sepsis. Many diseases of blood go hand in hand with collagenases.
Displays of diseases of blood are many-sided and are not always specific. Causeless fatigue and weakness, dizzinesses is characteristic signs of anemia up to faints, short wind at physical activities, pallor of integuments. Violations of the curtailing link of blood are characterized by petekhialny hemorrhages and ekhimoza, different bleedings (desnevy, nasal, uterine, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, etc.). In clinic of leukoses into the forefront intoksikatsionny or hemorrhagic syndromes act.
The very first method with which diagnosis of diseases of blood begins is the gemogramma research (the clinical analysis) with definition of quantitative composition of blood and morphology of uniform elements. At the diseases of blood proceeding with violation of a hemostasis the quantity of platelets, time of fibrillation and bleeding, a protrombinovy index, a koagulogramma is investigated; different tests - test of a plait, pinch, can test, etc. are carried out.
For assessment of the changes happening in the haematogenic bodies the marrow puncture (a sternalny puncture, a puncture of a podvzdoshny bone, a trepanobiopsiya) with studying of its cellular structure is used. Due to the diseases of blood carrying out other invasive diagnostic interventions is possible: biopsies of lymph nodes and a spleen for specification of relationship between the central and peripheral haematogenic bodies.
Beam methods of a research (X-ray analysis and KT of a thorax, X-ray analysis of tubular bones) are used for the purpose of detection of the increased sredosteniye lymph nodes at a limfogranulematoza, a limfosarkoma, a limfoleykoza; damages of bones at lymphoma, a miyelomny disease, etc. For assessment of the sizes, function of a spleen and identification of its focal defeats the stsintigrafiya is carried out. Within clarification of the reasons of an anemichesky syndrome for patients consultation of the gastroenterologist and gynecologist can be required; carrying out FGDS, kolonoskopiya, ultrasonography of a liver.
Any changes of a gemogramma or miyelogramma, and also the symptoms indicating probability of development of diseases of blood demand competent assessment from the hematologist, carrying out dynamic observation or specialized treatment under its control. The modern hematology developed the fundamental principles of therapy of various diseases of blood and accumulated extensive experience in their treatment. Whenever possible, treatment of diseases of blood there begin with elimination of the reasons and risk factors, corrections of work of internals, completions of missing substances and minerals (iron – at iron deficiency anemia, B12 vitamin – at B12-scarce anemia, folic acid – at foliyevodefitsitny anemia etc.).
Reception of corticosteroids, haemo static medicines, carrying out extracorporal haemo correction can be in certain cases shown (a plasma exchange, an eritrotsitaferez). Quite often hematologic patients need blood transfusion and its components. Methods of treatment of gematoblastoz most urgent and effective today around the world are cytostatic therapy, radiotheraphy, allogenny and autologichny transplantation of marrow, introduction of stem cells. A number of diseases of blood (trombotsitopenichesky purple, autoimmune anemias, myeloid leukemia, etc.) are the indication for removal of a spleen – a splenektomiya. Treatment of diseases of blood is carried out in the specialized hematologic medico-scientific centers having world-class hardware and highly qualified specialists.
At the modern level of development of medical science the majority of diseases of blood can be cured and prevented. For this purpose it is necessary to make annually the general blood test, to see immediately a doctor at emergence of the first guarding symptoms, not to start the course of chronic diseases (erosive gastritis, stomach ulcer of a stomach, enteritis, NYaK, hemorrhoids, uterus fibroma, etc.). It is necessary to avoid impact on an organism of adverse environmental factors. For a posterity birth exception medico-genetic consultations are held with congenital diseases of blood.
You will be able to find answers to the main questions concerning blood diseases in this section of the medical reference book "Medicine-for-you.com", to get acquainted with the main nosological forms, symptomatology, the principles of diagnostics and treatment.further...