Giperkeratoz is an excessive thickening of a horn layer of epidermis. The concept comes from two Greek words of hyper – much and keratosis – formation of a keratin. Cages of a horn layer begin to share strenuously that in combination with violations of a slushchivaniye of epidermis and leads to a thickening which can be from several millimeters to several centimeters. Distinguish follicular, lentikulyarny and desseminirovanny . Violation of process of a slushchivaniye of a superficial epithelium of skin which can arise at excess squeezing of the site of skin, for example, close clothes or footwear is the cornerstone of a disease.


    Giperkeratoz is an excessive thickening of a horn layer of epidermis. The concept comes from two Greek words of hyper – much and keratosis – formation of a keratin. Cages of a horn layer begin to share strenuously that in combination with violations of a slushchivaniye of epidermis and leads to a thickening which can be from several millimeters to several centimeters.

    Reasons of giperkeratoz

    Giperkeratoz is not an independent disease. The thickening of a horn layer and violation of process of an orogoveniye are observed at an ichthyosis, herpeses, eritrodermiya and other diseases. Even at healthy people it is shown to some extent on elbows, feet, sometimes on a lap.

    The exogenous reasons of giperkeratoz, that is the reasons arising from the outside is a long and excessive pressure on skin of feet, sometimes on body skin because of close or rough clothes. Pressure, as well as any external aggression, provokes protective mechanisms of an organism, in this case – the strengthened cell fission. Natural process of a slushchivaniye of cages is broken: when superficial cages peel, and again formed cages come to their place. And, as the result, occurs a thickening of a horn layer of epidermis – .

    As the most part of loading is necessary on a foot, they are subject to formation of a giperkeratoz. Narrow, close and vice versa footwear bigger, than it is necessary, the size cause a foot skin thickening. Excess body weight, especially with a high growth also repeatedly increase load of foot. People with pathologies have feet, for example at flat-footedness, because of violations of depreciation properties of a backbone a foot meets much more often. The acquired foot pathologies, and also lameness lead to redistribution of loads of foot owing to what there are zones of elevated pressure and localized .

    Various system diseases proceeding chronically belong to the endogenous reasons of giperkeratoz. Diabetes as as a result of a metabolic disorder the whole complex of the reasons of leaders to sensitivity violation develops is the most often endogenous reason of a giperkeratoz. Tactile and painful sensitivity becomes dull, violations of exchange processes develop, food of skin is broken and its dryness develops. These factors are the main at development of a giperkeratoz of feet at diabetes.

    Inherited disorders in formation of a keratin, keratodermiya, a skin ichthyosis, psoriasis and other diseases at which the condition of epidermis changes are more rare reasons of giperkeratoz.


     Follicular is one of clinical symptoms of skin diseases though follicles it is observed and as independent by a symptom. As a result of an excess orogoveniye and violation of an otsloyka of the top layers of epidermis there is an obstruction of a channel of a follicle skin scales. At people whose relatives suffered from a follicular giperkeratoz, the percent of incidence is higher. Deficiency of vitamin A and With, and also violations of personal hygiene are risk factors too. At impact on skin of cold, hard water and other physical factors follicular can develop and people with not changed functions have skin. After restoration of the former mode of life symptoms of a giperkeratoz disappear.

    Clinically follicular it is shown in the form of small red heat-spots hillocks on the place of follicles, skin becomes similar on goose. Parts of the body skin, inclined to dryness, are surprised. It is area of elbow and knee joints, buttocks and the external surface of hips. At long influence of adverse factors follicles gains widespread character, skin of hands and the lower extremities is surprised. Around small knots the rim is formed red, sometimes inflamed. If along with symptoms of a giperkeratoz there is continuous mechanical influence, for example rough clothes, then skin becomes rough and reminds skin. Small knots of a follicular giperkeratoz are infected at independent expression or at an involuntary travmatization that can lead to piodermiya of secondary character.

    Follicular is not a life-threatening state, but meanwhile demands treatment as cosmetic defects can serve as the reason of psychological injuries. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations. Today there are no medicines which could solve a problem of patients with a follicular giperkeratoz. In case this symptom is one of displays of diseases of internals, then their treatment or correction are capable to eliminate manifestations of a follicular giperkeratoz completely. And therefore patients with a follicular giperkeratoz which has a long current need inspection, both at the dermatologist, and at the endocrinologist and the therapist.

    Treatment of a follicular giperkeratoz is directed to correction of work of internals and in use of the softening ointments and local medicines which contain the lactic and fruit acids having effect of a peeling. Use of mechanical srubs and pumice at a follicular giperkeratoz is contraindicated as the travmatization can lead to infection or to progressing of symptomatology.

    Vitamins A and With, accepted both inside, and outwardly in the form of ointments are capable to correct process of a slushchivaniye of an epithelium and process of formation of new cages. Cosmetologists and dermatocosmetologists are engaged in treatment of a follicular giperkeratoz, but with age the symptomatology of a giperkeratoz of follicles usually decreases or disappears completely. It is connected with decrease in a saloobrazovaniye and reduction in the rate of cell fission of epidermis.

    Lentikulyarny and disseminirovanny

    The reasons of these giperkeratoz are not studied, violation of the processes of formation of a keratin of not clear origin connected with changes of human genome is the cornerstone of pathogenesis. These types of giperkeratoz are diagnosed generally for men of advanced age, but quite often symptoms begin to be shown in youth.

    The disease proceeds chronically, without tendencies to regress, after insolation aggravations are noted. In places of follicles horn papules from 1 to 5 mm in size of henna-red or yellow-orange color appear. The back surface of feet, shins is surprised and hips, are surprised follicles of hands, a trunk and auricles less often. In isolated cases lentikulyarny diagnose on a mucous membrane of a mouth. During removal of a horn stopper slightly damp deepening with dot bleeding in the center is bared. Papules have scattered character, are not inclined to merge, do not cause painful feelings. An insignificant part of patients notes a small itch on the sites struck with a lentikulyarny giperkeratoz.

    At a disseminirovanny giperkeratoz on skin there are polymorphic elements reminding short and thick hair which settle down separately without tendency to merge on skin of a trunk and extremities. Sometimes there are congestions groups in the form of a brush of 3-6 struck follicles. For differentiation of disseminirovanny and lentikulyarny giperkeratoz from papillomas, an ichthyosis and warts resort to a histologic research.

    Treatment consists in use of the ointments containing glucocorticosteroids and aromatic retinoida. Dangers to life of a giperkeratoza do not bear, however are cosmetic defect. The chemical peelings which are carried out by dermatocosmetologists and the procedures directed to moistening and mitigation of skin at regular application are capable to solve a problem. It is necessary to remember that mechanical influence, application of srubs and pumice are extremely undesirable as lead to aggravations and to accession of secondary piodermiya.

    Giperkeratoz of feet

     Plantar most often is cosmetic defect though the condition of skin of foot often testifies to a condition of an organism in general. As foot can reach several centimeters, dry skin because of pressure of a body is inclined to formation of the painful and bleeding cracks that leads to pains when walking and to infection.

    About 40% of women and 20% of men after twenty years note at themselves clinical manifestations of a plantar giperkeratoz who besides a thickening of skin is clinically shown by cracks, pain and burning when walking and feeling of constraint of feet.

    Close and inconvenient footwear, irregular care of legs, the hereditary and acquired foot pathologies, excess body weight and diseases of internals at which formation of a keratin is broken is the main reasons for a giperkeratoz of feet.

    Coarsening and thickening of skin begins gradually. With age skin "is given" and there are symptoms of a giperkeratoz. But, however, the correct and adequate care of skin of legs is capable to solve completely this problem, at least, clinically.

    If plantar and emergence of omozolelost is observed on all surface of heels, then the fungal disease of feet or endocrine violations is the most probable cause. Giperkeratoz on the outer edge of a heel testifies to a heel turn inside in time of walking. And, the clinical manifestations are more distinct, the motive stereotype is changed more; the congenital or acquired clubfoot and injuries of the motive device is the main reason.

    Giperkeratoz of an inner edge of foot appears at the wrong position of a heel, weak ligaments of an ankle joint and muscles of a shin. The excess body weight, flat-footedness and high loads of an ankle joint, as a rule, are the main reasons for emergence of a plantar giperkeratoz of this zone. At patients with similar problems an internal part of a heel quickly wears out, and footwear becomes useless. At a giperkeratoza of the rear edge of a heel it is enough to change footwear on more convenient that the condition of skin of foot was normalized as footwear when which carrying the only point of support is the heel or the basis of fingers is unsuitable for constant carrying. Longitudinal flat-footedness conducts to coarsening of a middle part of foot.

      Treatment of a plantar giperkeratoz is carried out in the chiropodist's office. It is symptomatic therapy, and therefore it is necessary to remove the main reason for a giperkeratoz of foot. If it is connected only with inconvenient footwear, then it is necessary to choose footwear at which load of foot is distributed evenly for daily carrying. If there are orthopedic diseases, then the orthopedic surgeon has to be engaged in their correction. Treatment or correction endocrine violations, antifungal therapy is also necessary, in that case if is the reason of a giperkeratoz mikotichesky defeats of feet.

    At emergence of cracks use applications with sintomitsinovy ointment and greasing of affected areas Retinolum solution. After healing of cracks it is necessary to remove surplus of skin masses. Treatment in house conditions a little long also demands patience. Salt foot trays with cool water, pumice and mechanical grinding are applied. Moistening of skin of feet and use of keratolitichesky ointments are also included into the scheme of treatment.

    At elimination of symptoms of a giperkeratoz in the conditions of an office of the chiropodist more aggressive razmyagchitel are applied that allows to get rid completely for several procedures of manifestations of a plantar giperkeratoz. However without due leaving and preventive procedures stop can return again. It is necessary to remember that with age coarsening of skin of feet is shown more distinctly, and prevention of a giperkeratoz of feet is due care of legs and wearing convenient footwear. Correction of excess body weight and prevention of fungal diseases help to keep beauty and health of legs too.

    Giperkeratoza - treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Self-treatment is unacceptable!!!

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